Tag Archives: Grammar 362

Grammar 362 Ch. 11: The Passive – Prepositional Verbs

Prepositional phrases are still a part of the passive construction. Adverbials and adverbial complements, however, do differ in how they are a part of a passive sentence.

Adverbial Complements

As a reminder, adverbial complements are a part of the PredPhr.  This means that the NP of the adverbial complement (or the PrepComp), can become the subject of a passive sentence.

Ex.: I listened to the lecture. ————> The lecture was listened to by me.

However, if the verb of the sentence has a DO, then the PrepComp cannot become the subject. The DO must be.


Incorrect: Olivia taught the pwips about diagrams. ———-> ***Diagrams were taught the pwips to by Olivia.

Correct: Olivia taught the pwips about diagrams. ————> The pwips were taught about diagrams by Olivia.



Adverbials are not a part of the sentence core. This means, unlike adverbial complements, they can never be the subject of a passive sentence.


Incorrect: I tried on Thursday. ———-> ***Thursday was tried on by me.

Correct: I tried on Thursday. ———–> (It) was tried by me on Thursday.


English 362: Ch. 9 Nouns that Modify Nouns

Heyo pwips! Since there seemed to be some confusion about this in class, here’s some more instruction on nouns that modify nouns.

We know that adjectives and prepositional phrases can modify nouns-but so can other nouns. Take, for example, the phrase “chicken soup bowl.” The entire phrase is clearly an NP, with the head noun being “bowl.” But what about “chicken soup?”

To break it down further, we know that “chicken soup” is a noun phrase on its own. This means that there must be at least two NPs branching off the original NP node, like in the figure below.

GSWE PWP example 1

Because it is a part of the original NP, we know that the function of “chicken soup” must be “Modif of ‘bowl.'”

However, we still have an NP made up of 2 nouns, which we can break down further.  Because there are two distinct nouns in the phrase, each noun must get another NP node, as shown in the figure below.

GSWE PWP example 2

Now that all of the forms are sorted, we just need to figure out the functions. One of the two nouns in “chicken soup” must be the head noun. Because the function of that NP is “Modif of ‘bowl,'” we know that the head noun’s function must also be to modify bowl.

The word “chicken” does not seem to modify bowl. “Chicken bowl” is not a common phrase. “Chicken,” however, can modify “soup.” “Chicken soup” is a phrase, as chicken describes the type of soup.

If chicken is not the head noun, that means it must be “soup.” This fits, as “soup bowl” is a common enough phrase. “Soup” describes what the bowl is used for. Its function must be “Modif of ‘bowl,'” as shown in the figure below.

GSWE PWP example 3


Congrats! We successfully diagrammed nouns modifying nouns. You can do this with other constructions. Just remember to break the nouns down by phrases with each phrase getting a new NP node until you are left with one word phrases.

English 362: Ch. 8: Determiners

Heyo pwips, let’s talk determiners!


Central Determiners

  • May be articles, demonstratives, or possessive pronouns
    • Articles: a, an, the
    • Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
    • Possessive pronouns: his, her, their, our, your, its
  • Forms: Art, Dem, Pron
  • Function: Det



  • Come before Central Determiner
  • May be quantifiers or a link
    • Quantifiers:
      • Quantifiers: all, none, few, many, some, both
      • Multipliers: twice, double, three times
      • Fractions: half, one third
    • Links:
      • The word “of” in the determiner phrase has the function of a link
      • “Of” forms a Preposition by itself and does not have a PrepComp
  • Forms: Quantifier, Preposition
  • Functions: PreDet, Link



  • Come after Central Determiner
  • May be cardinal numbers, ordinal numbers,  or two quantifiers
    • Cardinal numbers: one, two, three
    • Ordinal numbers: first, second, third
    • Quantifiers: few, many
  • Forms: Numeral, Quantifier
  • Functions: PostDet

English 362 Ch. 7: Prepositional Phrases – Phrasal Verbs

Hey pwips! Now that Olivia has gone over regular prepositional phrases, let’s talk about those pesky phrasal verbs.

Criteria for a Phrasal Verb

As we discussed in class, the best way to test if a verb is phrasal is to move it around the noun phrase.

We blew up the tree ——-> We blew the tree up

If the preposition can be moved around the noun phrase, it is phrasal. If the preposition cannot be moved, then it is an ordinary prepositional phrase with a Prep and an NP/PrepComp.

Why is it important to know if a preposition is phrasal or not?

A phrasal preposition is diagrammed differently from a regular prepositional phrase. A phrasal preposition does not have a PrepComp. This means that any NP after a phrasal preposition is not a part of the PrepPhr, and will most likely be a DO.

A PrepPhr with a phrasal preposition will only be composed of that preposition. The nodes will go as follows:

PredPhr-> PrepPhr -> Prep

The function of a phrasal preposition will often be AdvComp.

English 362: Review for Quiz 3: Ch. 5 & 6

Heyo pwips, it’s time for another quiz! Here’s a quick review of Ch. 5 and Ch. 6.


Ch. 5: Objects and Adjuncts

  • Sentence Core: NP and PredPhr
    • NPs can occur within the PredPhr
      • If you have 2 NPs and they are referring to 2 different entities, then the first (usually a person) will have the function IO and the second will have the function DO
      • If you have 2 NPs and they are referring to the same 1 entity, then the first NP will have the function DO and the second will be OC
        • An OC can also be an AdjPhr, but still requires that there be a VP, NP, and a AdjPhr in the predicate. If the PredPhr only consists of the VP and an NP or AdjPhr, then it has the function of an SC
    • Reminder that a transitive sentence has a DO
  • Non-Core Elements: Adverbial or Adjunct
    • Non-core elements are under their own node under the S. They are not a part of the predicate.
    • Adverbials and Adjuncts are functions. Adverbial forms are often prepositional phrases, and Adjunct forms are often prepositional phrases or adverb phrases.



Ch. 6: The Verb Phrase

  • The operator, or left-most verb, carries the tense
  • Verbs may be tensed or non-tensed
    • Tensed: General present, -s present, and past
    • Non-tensed: Base form, -ing form, and -en form
  • Verbs may have an aspect
    • Perfect Aspect: Form of has + -en form of next verb
    • Progressive Aspect: Form of be + -ing form of next verb
  • Auxiliary verb functions include “modal of,” “perfect of,” and “progressive of”
  • You will also need to know numbers
    • First-person Singular: I
    • First-person Plural: We
    • Second-person Singular: You
    • Second-person Plural: You
    • Third-person Singular: He/She/It
    • Third-person Plural: They

English 362: Ch. 6 Verbs & Jackie Chan, I Guess

Forms of Verbs

  • Non-tensed
    1. Base form —————- take
    2. -ing form —————– taking
    3.  -en form —————– taken
  • Tensed
    1. General present ——– take
    2. -s present —————- takes
    3. Past tense —————- took


  • Progressive
    • Action is ongoing or was ongoing
    • Form of be + -ing form of next verb to the right
      • Forms of be: be, is, are, am, was, were
      • Example: Jackie Chan is starring in a new movie.
  • Perfect
    • Suggests action is terminal
    • Form of have + -en form of next verb to the right
      • Forms of have: have, has, had
      • Example: Jackie Chan has stolen Olivia’s heart.
  • Both Perfect and Progressive Aspects
    • Sentences can have both aspects
    • Form of have + been + -ing form of next verb to the right
      • Example: Olivia has been picking some crazy blog post themes.

All Together Now

  • Sentences can have multiple auxiliaries before reaching the lexical verb. All auxiliaries must follow this pattern:
    • Modal – Perfect – Progressive – Lexical Verb
  • Tense must be carried on the leftmost verb.
    • Examples:
      • She has been acting strange.  –> Has carries the tense, so this sentence is present tense.
      • We were going there next. –> Were carries the tense, so this sentence is past tense.
    • Most modals cannot carry tense. Here are examples of ones that can.
      • She used to come here. –> Used to is what’s known as a generic past.
      • She is going to exercise later. –> Going to is known as prospective tense.
      • More examples and explanations can be found on Pg. 107 of your book.


English 362: Super Subject Complements

Heyo pwips, let’s talk subject complements!

Subject Complements

  • Function label
  • Follow a linking verb
    • Forms of be: is, am, are, was, were
    • Other verbs: seems, become, turned
  • Are a part of the predicate, S-V-SC
  • Can be a noun phrase or an adjective phrase


Wonder Woman is strong.

  • NP – Wonder Woman – Subject
  • Linking Verb – Is
  • Adjective Phrase – Strong – SC

Harley Quinn seems evil.

  • NP – Harley Quinn – Subject
  • Linking Verb – seems
  • Adjective Phrase – evil – SC

Starfire has become Queen of Tamaran.

  • NP – Starfire – Subject
  • Linking Verb – become
  • Noun Phrase – Queen of Tamaran – SC

English 362: Ch. 3 & 4 Quiz Review

Quiz 2 is next Monday-are you ready? Here’s a quick review of what you need to know.

Ch. 3: Diagrams

  • Every diagram should have a subject and a predicate
  • The word that is the head of the phrase always has the same function as the entire phrase
  • A reminder about the different abbreviations used in diagrams is on page 45
  • Learn the definitions of nodes, and what it means to “dominate” and “immediately dominate” on page 50

Ch. 4: Sentences and Their Parts

  • Declarative statements: Subject-Verb
  • Imperatives: Bare Verb, no Subject
  • Interrogatives: Inversion of Auxiliary Verb and Subject
  • Hortatives: “Let’s” or “Let us”
  • Exclamatives and precatives: “How sweet” or “Lord help us”
  • Verbless Interrogatives: No Verb, “How about a piece?”
  • Fragments: Missing a Subject or Verb

Remember to check out our other posts for more information about these topics, and to come into Laurentide for any additional help. Good luck!