Tag Archives: ch. 6

English 362: Review for Quiz 3: Ch. 5 & 6

Heyo pwips, it’s time for another quiz! Here’s a quick review of Ch. 5 and Ch. 6.


Ch. 5: Objects and Adjuncts

  • Sentence Core: NP and PredPhr
    • NPs can occur within the PredPhr
      • If you have 2 NPs and they are referring to 2 different entities, then the first (usually a person) will have the function IO and the second will have the function DO
      • If you have 2 NPs and they are referring to the same 1 entity, then the first NP will have the function DO and the second will be OC
        • An OC can also be an AdjPhr, but still requires that there be a VP, NP, and a AdjPhr in the predicate. If the PredPhr only consists of the VP and an NP or AdjPhr, then it has the function of an SC
    • Reminder that a transitive sentence has a DO
  • Non-Core Elements: Adverbial or Adjunct
    • Non-core elements are under their own node under the S. They are not a part of the predicate.
    • Adverbials and Adjuncts are functions. Adverbial forms are often prepositional phrases, and Adjunct forms are often prepositional phrases or adverb phrases.



Ch. 6: The Verb Phrase

  • The operator, or left-most verb, carries the tense
  • Verbs may be tensed or non-tensed
    • Tensed: General present, -s present, and past
    • Non-tensed: Base form, -ing form, and -en form
  • Verbs may have an aspect
    • Perfect Aspect: Form of has + -en form of next verb
    • Progressive Aspect: Form of be + -ing form of next verb
  • Auxiliary verb functions include “modal of,” “perfect of,” and “progressive of”
  • You will also need to know numbers
    • First-person Singular: I
    • First-person Plural: We
    • Second-person Singular: You
    • Second-person Plural: You
    • Third-person Singular: He/She/It
    • Third-person Plural: They

English 362: Ch. 6 Verbs & Jackie Chan, I Guess

Forms of Verbs

  • Non-tensed
    1. Base form —————- take
    2. -ing form —————– taking
    3.  -en form —————– taken
  • Tensed
    1. General present ——– take
    2. -s present —————- takes
    3. Past tense —————- took


  • Progressive
    • Action is ongoing or was ongoing
    • Form of be + -ing form of next verb to the right
      • Forms of be: be, is, are, am, was, were
      • Example: Jackie Chan is starring in a new movie.
  • Perfect
    • Suggests action is terminal
    • Form of have + -en form of next verb to the right
      • Forms of have: have, has, had
      • Example: Jackie Chan has stolen Olivia’s heart.
  • Both Perfect and Progressive Aspects
    • Sentences can have both aspects
    • Form of have + been + -ing form of next verb to the right
      • Example: Olivia has been picking some crazy blog post themes.

All Together Now

  • Sentences can have multiple auxiliaries before reaching the lexical verb. All auxiliaries must follow this pattern:
    • Modal – Perfect – Progressive – Lexical Verb
  • Tense must be carried on the leftmost verb.
    • Examples:
      • She has been acting strange.  –> Has carries the tense, so this sentence is present tense.
      • We were going there next. –> Were carries the tense, so this sentence is past tense.
    • Most modals cannot carry tense. Here are examples of ones that can.
      • She used to come here. –> Used to is what’s known as a generic past.
      • She is going to exercise later. –> Going to is known as prospective tense.
      • More examples and explanations can be found on Pg. 107 of your book.