In class we learned four models of development from Piaget, Vygotsky, Bronfenbrenner and Erikson. According to Woolfolk, (2014) one develops and constructs knowledge through “physical,” “personal,” “social” and “cognitive development” (p. 46). Woolfolk (2014) continues with that these areas of development entail “changes in the body,” alterations in “an individual’s personality,” modifications “in the way an individual relates to others” and “changes in thinking” (p. 46).
From our class, according to Piaget there are four stages of development: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete-operational stage and formal-operational stage. For Piaget’s model, the strengths that we learned in class are that the stages of learning are inexact and not concrete, but they are consistent in development. The limitations are that the stages are very broad and not detailed or specific.
According to Woolfolk (2014) Vygotsky’s key factors in cognitive development are language and “interactions with others” and an emphasis on culture (p. 68). The strengths to Vygotsky’s theory according to Woolfolk (2014) are “highlighting the role of culture and social processes” (p.68). According to Woolfolk (2014) the prominent weakness to Vygotsky’s theory is the lack of detail and specifics to the theory; it is generalized notions (p.68). Vygotsky’s theory impacts my future teaching by the possibility of having students work in groups to communicate as well as having in-class discussions/critiques of artwork. I will also give student art projects possibly just out of their reach using Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in order to grow and expand their skills for creating different types of art.
Woolfolk (2014) describes the significance of “context,” “the total situation that surrounds and interacts with an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and actions to shape development and learning” that pertains to Bronfenbrenner’s “Bioecological model” (p. 86). The model shows how relationships and areas of someone’s life interact and affect one another. I will think about this model as a teacher because I believe it is important to realize there are many factors in a student’s life that is beyond their control such as family life and poverty.
Poverty negatively affects a student’s development and learning in many ways. According to Votruba-Drzal, Miller & Coley (2016) “Poverty is associated with children’s early skills” in America “poverty-related disparities in cognitive skill emerge in infancy” (p. 4.) Votruba-Drzal et al. (2016) furthers with “poverty affects key proximal contexts and processes experienced by children and families which in turn affect children” (p. 4). An example Votruba-Drzal et al. (2016) writes is less “language stimulation” happens from “parents, books and toys” (p. 4). According to Kulkarni (2012) poverty can limit the attention a parent is able to give their child due to outside factors such as state of mind, unable to afford a residence or healthy foods, and working multiple jobs. This can affect cognitive development in the adolescent because they need the relationship with the parent (Kulkarni 2016).
According to Woolfolk, Erikson’s theory “emphasizes the emergence of the self, the search for identity, the individual’s relationships with others and the role of culture throughout life” (p. 99). Erikson’s model has multiple steps in development in age groups. This will impact my future teaching. Ideally I would like to teach high school students who will likely be in the stage of Identity vs. Role Confusion. High school is a time where students are figuring out who they are and I think art class is a great way to express themselves through conceptual art and subjects that are important to them as well has creating enigmatic artworks that pertain to their ideas about themselves and the world around them.
Kulkarni, Chaya (2012, October 19). Poverty and brain development [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6i105vkXVok
Votruba-Drzal, E., Miller, P., & Coley, R. L. (2016). Poverty, urbanicity, and children’s development of early academic skills. Child Development Perspectives, 10(1), 3-9. doi:10.1111/cdep.12152
Woolfolk, A. E. (2014). Educational psychology: active learning edition (12th ed.). Boston: Pearson.