The major demand within the current CBD market is based around concentrated oil. Concentrates allow for a variety of different ways to get CBD into your body such as ingestion, topical treatments, and vaporization. The most common form of CBD oil is packaged in tinctures, which is what the following will touch on. There are many different ways to extract CBD and produce tinctures, so I’ll just be covering a rough outline of the method we use at the laboratory that I work in.
Extracting the CBD into a crude oil is the first step to making tinctures. Although there are solvent-less techniques, this is typically done by using solvents such as butane, pentane, hexane, propane, and isopropyl alcohol. When run through a pressurized extraction system, these solvents essentially attach to the flower’s present cannabanoids (CBD), and pull it from the plant matter. There are many factors that processors must confront to pull this off effectively, but going into detail would be an information overload and most likely require a whole separate blog series.
After the CBD infused crude oil is produced, this is ran through a series of distillation techniques involving heat and vacuum pressure to pull the leftover solvent from the product. From there, the refined oil is typically mixed with a high-fat vegetable oil. The fat lipids attach to the CBD molecules and activate them, making the end product safe for human consumption.
Cannabis flower high in CBD has hundreds of benefits.
Although the majority of CBD products on the market today are produced using
CBD oil, there is still a solid demand for the flower in smokable form. Those
who smoke CBD buds report various positive effects such as (but not limited to);
a reduction is seizures, inflammation, pain, and anxiety. The effects of
smoking or vaping the flower are nearly instant, which is an added benefit as
well. It should be noted that those with respiratory issues are prone to
negative reactions in their lungs, just as with any smoke.
Growers who process their flower for smokable/vaping
purposes first dry their buds properly after harvest. As stated in Step 7, curing
the flower is highly suggested in order to take the product to the premium
level. After the buds are fully cured, it’s time to break down the flower using
a grinder. Once the flower is all ground up, roll a cigarette using hemp-based rolling
papers. Reputable brands include RAW and Zig Zag. It’s also a good idea to use
a filter, which is sometimes referred to as a crutch. This enables smokers to properly
hold the cigarette without damaging its integrity. Selling your crafted smokes in
packs of 5-20 has been a pretty lucrative plan for growers in the past. Also,
many users enjoy the process of rolling their own, so just selling the ungrounded
flower post-cure is also an effective business plan.
After your hemp seems as dry as possible from the wire hanging described in post #6, it’s time to cure the flower, which ensures the moisture in the buds is fully released. You’ll know it’s time to cure when the small branches break with a snap instead of bending. While some growers overlook the curing process and push their flower straight to processing or wholesale, the most accredited operations use a prolonged curing method for its added benefits. These benefits include increased potency and aroma, along with a longer preservation time of the buds.
first step to curing your flower is to separate the buds from the branches. After
separation, trimming the buds of any leaves and stems will allow for full
oxidization of the flower. This is a tedious process, but it’s recommended for
any growers looking to produce the highest-quality flower possible. Once your
buds are manicured, place them in any airtight storage vessel, such as a
canning jar. The flower should be packed loosely to the top. Be sure not to compact
any buds before sealing the container.
there, place the containers in a cool, dark, and dry spot and leave them there
for around 3-6 weeks on average, although a handful of strains require several
months to be fully cured. Throughout the first week you’ll want to open the
containers and let them breath for a couple minutes. You should notice your
buds (which were crunchy when put into the curing vessel), are now a bit moist due
to the reoxygenation. Red flags include the presence of an ammonia-type smell,
which suggests bacteria is molding your flower, or overdried buds that are
still crunchy. The latter is preferable, as it could still be partially salvaged
via oil extraction, which will be discussed in the next post. Stay tuned, and
thanks for reading!
A location to dry your hemp should be determined before you
even put plants in the ground. It’s a detail that could potentially be
overlooked, but it’s of the upmost importance that the drying process begins
immediately after harvest. The plants will be full of moisture once taken from
the ground, so a proper drying facility is vital in order to prevent the plant
material from molding. Structures such as a barn with a roof, walls and a large
open space are ideal for drying.
Solid ventilation is very important, so hanging the floral
biomass spaced appropriately along strings or set on open racks are the two
most commonly used drying setups. Several industrial fans should be utilized during
and after the plants are set up in the drying structure. The temperature in
your drying space should sit somewhere between 60-70 degrees F, and a humidity
of 60% should be maintained.
While some growers will rush through the drying process,
this runs the risk of improperly drying the flower and leaves a chance that the
buds will rot from within. Ideally, a slow-dry process with consistently high airflow
will cure the hemp and produce and higher-quality product.
Farmers have found that hanging whole plants upside down on
wires is inefficient, as the resulting closed umbrella shaped plants will
prevent ventilation in the center. Due to this effect, growers are advised to dry
individual branches of flower. Although this is a bit more intensive, it will
pay off in the long run with properly dried biomass, and a higher market price.
Timing is without a doubt the most crucial factor when
harvesting your hemp crop. Growers must let the Wisconsin Department of
Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection know when they plan to harvest in advance.
The optimal time to harvest is when your plants test high in CBD, yet still
under the 0.3% THC threshold allowed by the state. Predicting when this optimal
cannabinoid content will take place is a tough task. The following tips can
help give you an understanding of calculating the proper date.
Although many farmers simply harvest after a set amount of
days since first sprout, the top CBD farmers will track their grow with spreadsheets
developed through testing plants along the growth phase. Getting your plants
tested on occasion throughout the growing season may take time and energy, but
it’s sure worth the reward. The more data you collect on your crop’s CBD and
THC content, the easier it will be to predict this optimal date. With some
basic algebra, growers can use this data to find the slope, and apply this slope
to the calendar. Once the optimal date is determined, contacting the DATCP one
month in advance will give them enough notice to have your fields tested prior
to this date. It’s a safe bet to pull the harvest date back a week or so once
you’ve calculated it, just in case the data is off. If plants do run “hot”, or over the 0.3% THC
limit, the state will force the whole field to be destroyed.
Beyond the harvest date, growers should be prepared for
harvest with enough labor and equipment for the size of their fields. If your grow
is on the smaller side (10 acres or less), hand cutting the plants at the root
with machetes or loppers is your best bet. For large scale operations, some farmers
use modified harvesters for crops such as corn to cut the plants off halfway up
the stalk. This leaves the bottom half to decompose into the soil and
replenishes many of the nutrients used during the grow. I hope this shed some
light on the hemp harvesting process, stay on the lookout for the following step
in this blog series; Drying.
Once your hemp plants are in the ground and begin to take
root, it’s mostly a waiting game until harvest approaches. For crops that were
planted with regular seed, identifying and removing male plants is absolutely
key for a high-quality harvest. Growers who fail to do so will see an over 40%
reduction in cannabinoids (CBD), and the pollinated plants will convert their
energy from growing larger and more potent towards producing seeds. Pollinated
crops will result in an over 25% loss in biomass, which is all the more reason
to plant using feminized genetics.
As stated in earlier posts throughout this series, farmers looking to stay proactive during this time should investigate for any wildlife that may be harming their crop. Zero insecticides, fungicides or pesticides can be used since the chemicals will be converted into the plant’s oil profile and make the flower completely worthless. Insects can be an issue in certain areas, although the majority of Wisconsin growers have seen little threat from these pests so far.
If a drought occurs and there’s no irrigation in place, you should work out some sort of system to keep your plants watered. Stressed plants are proven to yield significantly less than those that aren’t stressed, so the overall goal during the growing phase is to provide as least a stressful environment as realistically possible. Aside from keeping your crop watered, I’d highly suggest investing in weeding equipment such as weed whackers, machetes, clippers, etc. These will be vital to keeping assuring the soil’s nutrients are going strictly to your plants. One common point of feedback from Wisconsin farmers who grew hemp in these past couple years is that it was much more labor than they had anticipated, so be fully prepared to work and/or have extra hands at your disposal.
third step to growing hemp for CBD in Wisconsin is the planting process. The
majority of growers plant sometime throughout early June and late July. A major
factor to consider when scheduling a planting date in Wisconsin’s unpredictable
climate is the risk of frost. Frost can kill off entire grow operations when plants
are extra vulnerable in their earlier growing phases, so it’s a safe bet to get
your seeds/clones in the ground a couple days later rather than earlier.
with any plants, hemp will grow larger and stronger with the more room you
space between each plant. The general rule of thumb is to plant seeds/seedlings
somewhere between 3-6 feet apart from one another, with each about 0.5” deep in
the soil. The closer your plants are to each other, the more plants you’ll have
per acre. For example, one acre will grow a rough estimate of 1600-1800 plants
when seeds are placed 5 feet apart. Since the hemp industry is so new, there isn’t
much equipment made to automate the planting process quite yet. Equipment made
for crops such as corn, soybean, etc., can be modified to an extent, but planting
by hand is the most reliable method for smaller grows (for now).
Wisconsin wildlife has shown an interest in hemp, so fencing
your fields is a solid option to protect your green ladies. Another addition to
think about for planting is irrigation. Although our summers in Wisconsin are usually
steady when it comes to rain, there have been droughts in the past. Also, it’s
not a bad idea to place a tarp over your crop asides from where you place the
seeds/seedlings. This will save you countless hours of weeding and assure that
your plants have little competition for the soil’s nutrients. Thanks for reading!
Be on the lookout soon for Step 4 to Growing Hemp for CBD in Wisconsin;
assuring that your soil is prepared to grow hemp for CBD, the next step is to
find the proper genetics to plant. This is arguably the most influential factor
towards the overall health and quality of your plants. Good genetics can
produce below low-quality flower if grown with carelessness, but below-average
genetics are incapable of growing the top-shelf buds we’re all aiming for. The Wisconsin
Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection has a list of
approved seeds for farmers to choose from.
There are multiple options to consider when choosing genetics, such as unfeminine seed, feminized seed, or clones. While unfeminine seed is the cheapest option, be aware that male plants will sprout and potentially seed out the female plant’s flower, drastically reducing the quality. The following option is to plant strictly feminized seed. Although this is option is nearly twice as expensive as unfeminized seed, it reassures that little to no male plants will be present within the crop. The third and final option is to find a nearby farmer in your area who is selling clones. Clones are a reliable way to find identical genetics that thrive in your area, all the while still maintaining a strictly feminized crop. Growing with clones nearly guarantees a high-quality harvest, but it’s by far the priciest choice with each acre of clones costing around $8,000 plus labor.
When deciding which genetics option to move forward with, you
should always investigate who else is planning to grow hemp in your local area
and which genetics they’re using. In the case that you were to invest thousands
of extra dollars for a feminized option, there’s always a risk that your plants
will still be pollinated by males from a different crop in the area via winds
or bees. This step in the growing process is key for a quality harvest, which
goes to show that planning months before and doing your research is absolutely
vital when growing hemp for CBD.
Wisconsin saw a massive breakthrough in 2017 when the federal government passed the 2018 Farm Bill, allowing farmers throughout the country to legally grow and process industrial hemp. While this was a great step forward, relatively inexperienced Wisconsin farmers were faced with the difficult task of learning how to properly grow the crop. This post will be the first of a series in which I’ll try my best to explain the most efficient process of growing hemp in Wisconsin.
First and foremost, farmers must apply for a license to grow through Wisconsin’s Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection (DATCP). More information on licensing can be found through this link. As far as the actual growing, the first step towards farming industrial hemp is to check for adequate soil.
There’s a few requirements the soil should meet if you’re looking to take a hemp crop from average to high quality plants. Hemp thrives in loamy soil that is drained well. The ideal acidity (pH) of the soil is somewhere between 7 and 7.5. Hemp is vulnerable to damage via soil compaction during its first stages of growth, so the less clay in the soil the better.
As for nutrients, hemp responds well to the typical optimal levels of nitrogen, phosphate, phosphorus, and potassium. If your soil is lacking any of these nutrients, it’s suggested to add the lacking element accordingly. One of the biggest struggles hemp farmers deal with is the inability to use chemical fertilizers or herbicides. Since the plant’s cannabidiol (CBD) will be extracted into oil after harvest, hemp must remain fully organic throughout the growing process. It’s encouraged to use organic fertilizers such as cow or chicken manure to fully prepare the soil for the grow. I hope this post educated those who are interested in adding to Wisconsin’s emerging hemp market, feel free to comment with any questions and be on the lookout for the next step’s post in the near future!
Paper is a vital commodity for today’s society, and we use it as if the trees we harvest to produce it are grown overnight. It’s estimated that roughly 25% of waste in the average landfill is composed of paper. Over 93% of paper made today is produced from trees. Given the fact that the world’s demand for paper is expected to double by the year 2030, it’s safe to say we must find an alternative to paper from trees immediately. Luckily, with the 2018 Farm Bill Act being passed, industrial hemp and its regenerative agriculture properties might just be what our planet needs to mitigate the damages we’ve inflicted on our forests.
Hemp paper is vastly superior in comparison to tree paper in every aspect. Environmentally speaking, hemp can be recycled up to 8 times, where paper from trees can only be recycled 3 times. Furthermore, trees that are processed into paper take several decades to grow. Hemp can be grown and harvested up to 3-4 times in the proper climate. To cap it all off, one acre of hemp can provide as much paper as up to four acres of trees. Hemp paper has the potential to fill our planet’s paper demand in an efficient, regenerative process.
It almost sounds too good to be true, especially when you consider the fact that hemp paper is not only better for our planet, but its also a much higher quality paper. Where paper from trees is liable to being easily ripped, hemp paper requires significant force to be ripped. It also degrades much slower in comparison to tree paper. For example, one of the earliest drafts of our nation’s declaration was on a piece of hemp paper, and that copy is still in pretty solid shape considering it was made over 240 years ago. Hopefully hemp paper will begin to mitigate the demand for tree paper as farmers throughout the country develop the best ways to grow this fantastic plant for its strong natural fiber. It’s a win-win scenario for the farmers who grow hemp, the consumers who use the paper, and most importantly, our planet.