Safety 255 Project

  1.  Sources and forms of the drug
    1. Cocaine comes from the coca plant that is native to the high mountain ranges in South America.
    2. There are two different forms of the of this drug

i.      One is a white crystal powder that you can snort

ii.      Other is crack cocaine that  you smoke

  1. History of the drug
    1. Origin

i.      Cocaine was first made in 1859 by Albert Niemann

  1. Early use

i.      In the 1880s it became popular in the medical community

ii.      It also became more popular with the use of it in a new soft drink Coca-Cola

iii.      In 1905 the rise of snorting cocaine started

  1. Drug use/misuse in the US
    1. Trends

i.      Early 1990s Colombian cartels produced and exported between 500-800 tons of cocaine a year

ii.      In the 1990s cocaine use was on the rise in the US

iii.      The use of cocaine dropped from 2006 to 2010

iv.      As of 2008, cocaine became the second most trafficked drug in the world

  1. Current use in the US

i.      http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/cocaine

 

  1. Pharmacology and effects
    1. Routes of administration

i.      Cocaine

  1. Snorting
  2. Rub on mucous tissues
  3. Inject with a needle into bloodstream

ii.      Crack

  1. Smoke it
  2. Physiological effects

i.      Heart

  1. Cocaine increases the heart rate and the pressure constricts the arteries that supply blood to the heart
  2. Cause heart attacks
  3. Heart disease
  4. Arrhythmia: abnormal heart rhythm

ii.      Brain

  1. Constrict blood vessels in the brain causing strokes
  2. Seizures that can cause violent behaviors

iii.      Lungs and respiratory system

  1. If you snort it damages the nose and sinuses
  2. Can cause nasal perferforation
  3. Smoking can irate the lungs and cause damage

iv.      Gastrointestinal tract

  1. Constricts blood vessels  that the supply the gut
    1. Can result in ulcers or perforation

v.      Kidneys

  1. Cause sudden kidney failure (rhadomyolsis)
  2. People with high blood pressure can accelerate long-term kidney damage

vi.      Sexual function

  1. Can cause delayed or impaired ejaculation
  2. Causes for concern

i.      Acute toxicity

  1. Phase 1 (early)
    1. Central nervous system(CNS) effects

i.      Cause headaches

ii.      Vomiting

iii.      Muscle twitches

iv.      Vertigo

v.      Nausea

  1. Circulator

i.      High blood pressure

ii.      Slowed pulse rate

  1. Respiratory

i.      Increased breathing

  1. Temperature

i.      Increases body temperature

  1. Behavioral

i.      Euphoria

ii.      Agitation

iii.      Apprehension

iv.      Restlessness

  1. Phase 2
    1. CNS

i.      Seizure

ii.      Decreased responsiveness

  1. Circulatory

i.      Hypertension

ii.      Weak, rapid, irregular pulse

  1. Respiratory

i.      Dyspnea

ii.      Gasping

iii.      Irregular breathing pattern

  1. Temperature

i.      Severe hyperthermia

 

  1. Phase 3
    1. CNS

i.      Coma

ii.      Loss of vital functions

  1. Circulatory

i.      Failure and cardiac arrest

  1. Respiratory

i.      Failure

ii.      Cyanosis

iii.      Paralysis of respiration

ii.      Chronic  toxicity

  1. Ingestion
    1. Cause thoracic pain
    2. Erosion of teeth
    3. Inhalation (smoking)
      1. Chest pain
      2. Convulsions
      3. Hypoxemia

iii.      Dependence potential

  1. Psychological desire to use
  2. The need to feel energetic, happy, and talkative

iv.      Social issues

  1. Destructive habits because of the drug
  2. Strict laws against use of the drug.
  3. Current benefit

i.      None at the moment

  1. Overall health impact

i.      Cocaine is a terrible drug to get involved in and can ruin your life

  1. Approaches to prevention/mitigation
    1. Drug prevention techniques

i.      Have the knowledge and better understading of what the drug does to your body

ii.      Know how hard it can be to stop using

  1. Regulations and law

i.      Possesion of more than 500 grams

  1. Imprisonment for 5 to 40 years
  2. If a death can be traced back to you it can increase by up to 20 years and cause fines from $2 million to $5 million dollars
  3. If you have a previous conviction it can be either 10 to life in prision

ii.      Possesion of 5 kg or substance containing coca leaves

  1. Mininmum of 10 years to life
  2. In cases where death or serious injury has occurred sentence is doubled
  3. Recommended action
    1. You should just avoid cocaine at all costs it is a terrible drug and can ruin your life
  4. Sources
    1. (2007). In Drug abuse prevention. Retrieved June 25, 2014, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/drug-abuse-prevention
    2. (n.d.). In Cocaine Legalities. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.thegooddrugsguide.com/cocaine/legality.htm
    3. (n.d.). In Cocaine. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/pharm/pim139e.htm
    4. (2014, April 3). In Cocaine Toxicity. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/813959-overview
    5. (n.d.). In Cocaine Use and its Effects. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/cocaine-use-and-its-effects
    6. RAND Corporation. (2014, March 10). U.S. cocaine use cut by half, while marijuana consumption jumps. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 3, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140310141115.htm
    7. (2013, December). In Cocaine. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/cocaine
    8. (n.d.). In Drug Facts. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://ades.bc.ca/Drug_facts/cocaine.html
    9. (n.d.). In Cocaine: A Short History. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/cocaine/a-short-history.html
    10. (n.d.). In Cocaine History. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.narconon.org/drug-information/cocaine-history.html