Cocaine Topical project parts 8-11

Cocaine is a drug that has many effects, and many people have been dependent on this drug. One unique thing, not necessarily good, is that I have a friend who abused this drug. Just like me he had plans on going to college and doing something useful with his life. The difference between me and him is he gave into peer pressure, and the life of partying and I did not. I am not saying I do not party, but I do have fun, and make sure that I would not do whatever someone tells me to do. Unfortunately my friend is having a hard life, and trying to get back his life by going to rehab. My point is this drug is not something to play around with, because they can change a person’s life for the worse. Maybe with a little bit more guidance life could have went much better for him at this point.

There are many organizations/programs out there that attempt to prevent the use and abuse of drugs but of them all he two that I am most familiar with is the Boys and Girls Club of America, and Drug Free America Foundation. The Boys & Girls club of America not only leads efforts to prevent cocaine, but all substance abuse. Their goal is aimed at youth, and there approach is to keep children out of the streets, and create a positive place where young boys and girls can stay away from such drugs. Which I find to be really effective because I grew up going to a Boys and Girls club, which really kept me from spending my time somewhere I shouldn’t have. Another organization is as I announced is the Drug Free of America Foundation, which in their approach is nationwide. Their goal is “to reduce the demand for drugs by utilizing effective practices in treatment, law enforcement and prevention.”

Cocaine is an unlawful drug and a number of laws have been passed for the possession or use of cocaine/crack, such as the anti-drug abuse act of 1986, which since then has been revised a few times. This act uses a ratio to for sentencing for the possession of crack cocaine, for example an 18:1 ratio gives a person a certain amount of years in prison. For 28 grams of cocaine a person receives a five-year sentence.

Crack cocaine is a very dangerous when used improperly, because this drug affects the mind and body. This country has suffered a lot from the abuse of cocaine, and has spent billions for the prevention of the drug. Since the drug is here and the damage has already done, the best thing our country can do is keep trying to prevent this drug from being used by people. I believe if parents enforce that this drug should never be used, and tell their children what this drug does, than children will be less likely to use the drug in the future. Even though the law does the best it can to prevent the usage and possession of the drug, it truly is not enough; which is why we need parents of children to be more involved of their children’s life. I believe the more a parent is involved in a child’s life the less likely the child will be to drug such drugs as cocaine.

 

 

Carl, L. H., & Charles, K. (2013). 15th Edition: Drugs, Society & Human Behavior. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Goldstein, R., DesLauriers, C., Burda, A., & Johnson-Arbor, K. (2009). Cocaine: history, social implications, and toxicity: a review. Seminars In Diagnostic Pathology, 26(1), 10-17.

 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental Health Findings, NSDUH Series H-47, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4805. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.

 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2004). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H–25, DHHS Publication No. SMA 04–3964). Rockville, MD.

 

 

 

Warner, E. (1993). Cocaine abuse. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 119(3), 226-235

Cocaine Topical project parts 4-7

Cocaine is one of the most highly known drugs in the world, with multiple ways of administering the drug into the body. As in my last post, in the ancient use of cocaine many people just chewed the leaves as administration. Now in our modern day there are about 3 common ways that people administer this drug into their bodies. One of the most common ways of administration of this drug is intranasal insufflation a.k.a snorting, which in 1993 90% of all cocaine users administered the drug in this way (Warner, 1993, p. 226). The second and third ways of administration is smoking and injecting cocaine.  The drug works more quickly based on which administration route is chosen; however once fully in the body it all has the same effect.

Cocaine just like many other drugs is a chemical drug that affects the nervous system. Once inside the body cocaine blocks neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin at the synapse. This block of neurotransmitters causes an increase in “alertness, energy, talkativeness, repetitive behavior, diminished appetite, and altered sexual behavior” (Warner, 1993, p. 227).  This drug is a stimulant, so it the opposite of drugs such as alcohol. The response inside the body causes the response inside the mind, making this drug to be very effective physiological and psychological.

Cocaine is a unique drug, unlike other drugs, cocaine’s acute toxicity effects can also be its chronic toxicity effects. The effects of cocaine has a wide range, that relate to almost every part in the human body. Cocaine has be related to complications with chest pains, endocrine, gastrointestinal, head and neck, neurologic, pulmonary, psychiatric, and even sudden death. Of these effects the most common that are reported in ED visit is chest pains (cardiac problems), and neurologic problems such as seizures (Goldstein, DesLauriers, Burda, 2009). The source of the problems can also relate to the route of administration, which could be the reason for the wide range of toxicity problems. For example say a person who snorts may have more head related complication rather than a person who smokes the drug who may have more chest related issuers.

The reason why cocaine is addictive, and makes its users dependent goes back to the chemistry of the drug which is the blocking of the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. This action leads “ increased serotenergic activity” which “can result in seizures and may be involved in the addiction and reward effects of cocaine” (Goldstein, DesLauriers, Burda, 2009). So when people lose this increased activity, which their bodies were dependent on, they begin to have withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms cause dependence.

Cocaine brings about many issues since it is an illegal drug. As of modern times the use of it has decreased, however it still is a major issue of concern. This drug is related to family, community, and economic issues among our country. This drug has no true benefits to it, only negatives come out of the use of this drug. This drug is related to many health problems, and can possibly lead to death in some cases. Overall without cocaine our country would be a lot better off without it.

 

 

 

Warner, E. (1993). Cocaine abuse. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 119(3), 226-235

 

Goldstein, R., DesLauriers, C., Burda, A., & Johnson-Arbor, K. (2009). Cocaine: history, social implications, and toxicity: a review. Seminars In Diagnostic Pathology, 26(1), 10-17.

Cocaine: Topical project 1-3

Cocaine is a drug that has a long history among many civilizations, and has been used for many reasons. Cocaine comes from the coca plant, mainly native to South America.  In its early uses the plant was mainly chewed from the leaves of the plant for an “energy boost, relieve fatigue, and lessen hunger” (Warner, 1993, p. 226). At the time it could have possibly still been addictive; however just chewing the leaves produced a lot less effects than how it is used today. In many religious civilizations the leaves were used for various ceremonial reasons. Not until the mid-18 hundreds did cocaine change to become what it formed into today mainly because of Albert Niemann who perfected the isolation process of the cocaine alkaloid. After Albert’s process, in the late 1800’s, cocaine began to be used in patent medicines, drinks, and alcohol. Cocaine was widely used in the U.S. until the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act in 1914. After the act was passed many acts and laws were passed illegalizing the use and possession of the drug.

The ways people use cocaine in modern times are mainly for dependence reasons. Cocaine can be taking in three ways, which is by smoking, snorting, or injecting it through syringes. The plant is turned into three purified forms: cocaine hydrochloride, freebase, and crack. These three have different processes of becoming there final forms, however some are used more than others, mainly for cost purposes. As of 1993 trend snorting was the most popular way of administering cocaine. This Drug has had many ups and downs since the 1800’s.

Cocaine is a drug that was really popular than went down in use after act like the Harrison act was passed. The height of this drug usage was in the 1980’s and 90’s. Survey’s from the National Institute on drug abuse in 1990 show that people who ever used cocaine from the ages 12-34 was as high as 11.3 percent. This does not mean that those who ever used it used it on a consistent basis. Since the illegalization of cocaine this was the highest use of the drug in modern times. Since the 1990’s use of cocaine has dropped greatly. In 2002 than 1.1 million American used cocaine for the first time, of which 70% of users were 18 or older. A survey from NSDUH shows that 13.4% of American who had mental illness used cocaine, and only 1.4% who used cocaine as of 2012. This may explain that now in our time cocaine is of more use to people who have mental issues rather than people who do not. So the trend for today for the use of cocaine is a lot less popular among all American who do not have a mental illness.

Cocaine is a unique drug that has great impact on our history, because it has been used in so many ways. This drug went from being in our most popular drink, Coca-Cola, to being one of the most illegal drugs in the United States. In some way this drug will always be used, however the more people know about the drug, just maybe the less they will use of it.

 

 

 

Warner, E. (1993). Cocaine abuse. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 119(3), 226-235

Goldstein, R., DesLauriers, C., Burda, A., & Johnson-Arbor, K. (2009). Cocaine: history, social implications, and toxicity: a review. Seminars In Diagnostic Pathology, 26(1), 10-17.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental Health Findings, NSDUH Series H-47, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4805. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2004). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H–25, DHHS Publication No. SMA 04–3964). Rockville, MD.