Final Project

July 19th, 2014

Amphetamines are not a naturally occurring substance.  Amphetamines are synthetically created in a lab using Ephedra.  There is currently no FDA approved use for Ephedra in the US and is illegal. (amphetamines, natural, n.d.)

Some types of amphetamines are; Ecstasy, Speed, Ice, methamphetamine, and prescribed medications such as Adderall.  Amphetamines come in different forms such as; different colored powders and capsules, and crystals or crystalline powder.  (Ceida)

finished-craft
Photos from http://www.ceida.net.au/stimulants/amphetamine-type.asp

 

Amphetamines were synthetically created by a Romanian chemist, Lazar Edeleanu, in 1887.  It was synthetically created from a chemical found in a plant called Ma-Huange.  This plant is found in China. (Amphetamines.com)

ephedra_sinica_ethnoplants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first medical use of amphetamines was in the 1920′s for asthma when it was discovered that they dilated bronchial sacs in the lungs.  The Benzadine inhaler was introduced in 1932 and quickly became abused.  By the mid 1930′s teens and young adults removed the amphetamine strip from the inhalers and placed them in coffee or chewed them and swallowed them for a cheap high.  Amphetamines became the most abused drug of the 1930′s.  In 1937, Bensedrine Sulfate tablets were approved bu the American Medical Association for the treatment of narcolepsy, postencephalitie Parkinsonsim, and minor depression.  In the 1950′s and 1960′s Amphetamines were used by WWII soldiers, long haul truck drivers, and college students to stay up for long periods of time.  Amphetamines were also used by athletes for energy.  Amphetamines are used today to treat ADHD, but its use is limited. (amphetamines.com)

According to the results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the drug use in a lifetime among persons 12 or older for Ecstasy in 2012 was 6.2%.  Stimulant use was 8.3%, and methamphetamine use was 4.7%.  Substance abuse or dependence for stimulants for ages 12 and up was .2% (Substance Abuse, 2013)

According to the Treatment Episode Data Set Report from 2009, the percentage of admissions who reported abuse of methamphetamines remained  stable at 8% from 1997 – 2000.  Admissions peaked in 2005 at 13% and then declined to 12% in 2006 and 2007. (Substance Abuse, 2009)

209MethTrendsFig1

 

 

 

The Drug Abuse Warning Network reported drug misuse and abuse emergency department visits of amphetamines to be a weighted annual estimate of 34,085 in 2004.  These visits were lowest in 2007 at 21,545 visits.  The number of visits sharply increased after that and by 2011 was more than double the 2004 amount at 70,831 visits. (Substance Abuse, 2011)

Amphetamines have several routes of administration. Medical amphetamines are generally taken orally.  They also have skin patches of one brand of ADHD medication, that I know of, for people who do not like to swallow pills.  Methamphetamines are often taken orally or insufflated by beginners.  Methamphetamine users progress to intravenous use and may sometimes smoke it.  The Hydrochloride salt of Meth can be smoked.  During the withdrawal phase, Meth may be used with alcohol or marijuana. (National Hwy)  There is a one hour lag with oral amphetamines before the onset of symptoms with peak plasma concentration occurring 2-3 hours after ingestion.  The effects can be felt in minutes with insufflation and intravenous use.  Peak concentration occurs 5 minutes after injection and 30 minutes after insufflation.  The affects of amphetamines can last 10-12 hrs. (Medscape 2012)

I do not do well with science and do not understand biology and the effects drugs have on the brain.  This section of how Amphetamines effect the synapse was difficult for me.  I understand that through several different processes, Amphetamines increase synaptic levels of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine neurotransmitters.  The drug binds to these neurotransmitters and reverses their function, this causes the neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic cleft and blocks reuptake.  Amphetamine impairs excitatory synaptic transmission through the release of dopamine acting at D1/D5 receptors.  The impairment is reversible.  The time course of the synaptic impairment may mean that in order to release dopamine, amphetamines may need to enter presynaptic terminals. (Mair 2007)  A study done on rats showed that two days after discontinued injections of amphetamines the rats ate more food and gained a considerate amount of weight over a 30 day period.  This is consistent with the findings that withdrawals from drug abuse can cause overeating and weight gain.  The weight gain after the discontinued use of drugs may be similar to the amphetamine- induced sensitization mechanisms involved  in reward motivation. (Orsini 2014)

Amphetamines have many serious psychological effects.  These effects may include anxiety and paranoia, which may lead to social disorder.  They may also experience obsessive behavior, aggression and violent behavior.  Other behavioral changes may also include loss of sex drive, disorientation, difficulty learning new material, over excitement, and nervousness. (Amphetamines.com)

crystal-paranoia-panic-250x166

Photo from http://amphetamines.com/effects/

 

 

 

 

 

Amphetamines have many scary symptoms of acute toxicity.  These symptoms may include; dizziness, tremors, irritability, confusion, hallucinations, chest pain, palpitation, hypertension, sweating, and cardiac arrhythmia.  Hyperpyrexia, convulsions, and shock may be followed by death. (Toxnet 1999)

Abnormal mental conditions are more common in chronic toxicity of Amphetamine use, but the symptoms may be similar to acute overdose.  Weight loss is a symptom of chronic use.  Chronic toxicity of amphetamines may be mistaken for Schizophrenia because it may cause a psychotic reaction with vivid hallucinations and paranoid delusions.  Chronic use may cause microvascular damage, neuronal chromatolysis, and extreme long lasting, or permanent, reduction of dopamine. (Toxnet 1999)

Amphetamines have a high potential for dependence.  Amphetamines cause changes in the body and brain chemistry and may make people feel they cannot live without it.  People with Bipolar and antisocial disorder have chemical imbalances in their brains and are at a higher risk for amphetamine dependence. (Amphetamine.com)

There are a few current beneficial uses of amphetamines.  Amphetamines and Methamphetamines may be used to treat narcolepsy, ADD, and ADHD.  Amphetamines may be used to treat weight control, but methamphetamines are infrequently used to treat obesity, overeating disorders, and weight loss because of its high potential for abuse. (National Hwy)

In my experience Amphetamines can be very beneficial.  In third grade my son was flunking all of his classes, I thought he had a learning disability.  He was tested for ADHD and subsequently put on ADHD medication.  His grades went up to A’s and B’s by his next report card.  I would not recommend discontinuing the use of amphetamines, but their use needs to be closely monitored because of it potential for abuse.  Amphetamine abuse has very serious consequences and can lead to death.  Any signs of abuse need to be quickly addressed and treated.

I have seen cases of proper drug use and misuse.  Both of my children take ADHD medication and have never misused them.  My youngest has decided he no longer needs them.  Neither one has become addicted or tried other drugs.  I am also thankful that they didn’t give or sell their pills to other kids.  My younger son has gained weight since being off his pills and has commented he should start again to lose weight, but has not done so.  I have a cousin who is Bipolar and has abused everything.  I do not even know all the drugs he has taken.  He has stolen vehicles from family members to drive to Milwaukee.  He rents the vehicle out to purchase the drugs.  He has been in and out of many rehabilitation facilities and always goes back.  He had a wife and two kids he walked away from to use drugs.  After many years he finally quit, remarried and had another child.  He and his wife started up again, and their two year old got into their cocaine and almost died.  His wife cleaned up, but he still has not.  He has now done permanent damage to his brain and does not care.  He refuses to quick using no matter what it is doing to everyone around him.  His problems are not solely from amphetamine or methamphetamine use, but is is partially to blame.

The united Nations Office on Drugs and Crime had a very extensive amphetamine prevention plan aimed at policymakers.  The site stated that there was little research on amphetamine prevention.  They stated that “prevention and health promotion activities that have the aim of preventing or delaying onset of use in a population or selected population have enormous potential to reduce demand.”  Regulatory and legal measure reinforce a prevention and reduction programs.  A good program also needs to realize that substance abuse is a part of a range of problems including; crime, suicide, and education problems.  These problems need to be addressed through their shared pathway and not individually.  To start a program a jurisdiction needs reliable information on the nature and extent of the problem in their area.  They need to know at what age amphetamines were first used, the level of use by age groups, the differences in gender use, what age is the heaviest use, the forms of risky use and the problems that occur.  A jurisdiction also needs to know what resources and support are available to them.  As a program is being planned and implemented it is important to involve the young people the plan intends to target, and it is important for the program to follow the youth through their development and not erode over time.  The programs may include classroom instructions, peer helper programs parent education, or mentoring for at risk students.  A decision needs to be made as to what form of prevention the program will use.  There is selective prevention where you target you with risk factors.  Universal prevention targets all youth through internet, television, comics and so on.  School based skill building models teach decision making, goal setting, stress management, and assertiveness and communication skills.  The alternative approach believes that you are less likely to use amphetamines if they are involved in other satisfying activities. (UN 2007)

Legally, amphetamines are classified as schedule II drugs under the title Central Nervous System(CNS) stimulants.  It is illegal to manufacture, distribute, or possess any controlled substance.  If you are convicted of manufacturing, distributing, or possessing more than 5 grams of amphetamines or methamphetamines you could face 5-40 years in prison and or a fine of up to $5 million.  If the use or distribution of the substance causes death, the minimum prison sentence is increased to 20 years.  Minimum sentences or increased by 10 years for repeat offenses and the fine can increase to as much as $10 million.  The penalties are increased if the conviction for manufacturing, distributing, or possession is more than 50 grams. (Laws)

I have never thought about what should or could be done to prevent drug abuse or misuse.  I believe prevention should be targeted at middle school children,  I don’t believe children younger than that would understand or care what is being told to them, and older than that may be too late.  Programs that start in the middle school should continue through high school.  Many youth who do not participate in sports or other after school activities hang out with friends after school and that is when trouble starts.  If there were safe places for these kids to hang out in the community and do things they may not sit around and think of ways to get into trouble.  Community programs could include a gym, cultural arts, or just a place to hang and talk.  Many kids with a problem are afraid to get help because they don’t want their parents to find out, so counseling at the programs would be beneficial.  Group therapy is beneficial to giving each other support and maybe even preventing another youth from trying a drug.  Kids listen to each other more than adults.  Police cannot be everywhere and stop everything, so we need more programs to prevent the youth from starting to use drugs and them maybe we would need less facilities to treat them.

 

Resources:

Amphetamines.com. (n.d.) History of Amphetamines, and Natural Amphetamines.  Retrieved from http://amphetamines.com/

Amphetamines.com. (n.d.). Psychological Effects of Amphetamines. Retrieved from http://amphetamines.com/effects/psychological-effects-of-amphetamines/

Ceida. (n.d.) Amphetamie-Type Stimulants.  Retrieved from http://www.ceida.net.au/stimulants/amphetamine-type.asp

Laws.com. (n.d.). Amphetamine. Retrieved from http://drugs.laws.com/amphetamine

Mair, Robert D., Kaver, Julie A. (2007). Amphetamine depresses excitatory synaptic transmission at prefrontal cortical layer V synapses. Neuropharmacology. 52(1), 193-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.07.004

Medscape. (2012). Amphetamine Toxicity. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/812518-overview

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.). Methamphetamine (and Amphetamine). Retrieved from http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/research/job185drugs/methamphetamine.htm

Orsini, C. A., Ginton, G., Shimp, K. G., Avena, N. M., Gold M. S., & Setlow, B. (2014). Food consumption and weight gain after cessation of chronic amphetamine administration. Appetite. 78, 76-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.03.013

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (October 1, 2009). The TEDS Report: Trends in Methamphetamine Admissions to Treatment: 1997-2007. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k9/209/209MethTrends2k9.htm

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings and Detailed Tables. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/dawn.aspx#DAWN 2011 ED Excel Files – National Tables

Toxnet. (1999). Amphetamines, Human Health Effects. retrieved from http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+3287

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2007). Preventing amphetamine-type stimulant use among young people. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/youthnet/ATS.pdf

Project continued

July 13th, 2014

I have seen cases of proper drug use and misuse.  Both of my children take ADHD medication and have never misused them.  My youngest has decided he no longer needs them.  Neither one has become addicted or tried other drugs.  I am also thankful that they didn’t give or sell their pills to other kids.  My younger son has gained weight since being off his pills ad has commented he should start again to lose weight, but has not done so.  I have a cousin who is Bipolar and has abused everything.  I do not even know all the drugs he has taken.  He has stolen vehicles from family members to drive to Milwaukee.  He rents the vehicle out to purchase the drugs.  He has been in and out of many rehabilitation facilities and always goes back.  He had a wife and two kids he walked away from to use drugs.  After many years he finally quit, remarried and had another child.  He and his wife started up again, and their two year old got into their cocaine and almost died.  His wife cleaned up, but he still has not.  He has now done permanent damage to his brain and does not care.  He refuses to quick using no matter what it is doing to everyone around him.  He problems are not solely from amphetamine or methamphetamine use, but is is partially to blame.

The united Nations Office on Drugs and Crime had a very extensive amphetamine prevention plan aimed at policymakers.  The site stated that there was little research on amphetamine prevention.  They stated that “prevention and health promotion activities that have the aim of preventing or delaying onset of use in a population or selected population have enormous potential to reduce demand.”  Regulatory and legal measure reinforce a prevention and reduction programs.  A good program also needs to realize that substance abuse is a part of a range of problems including; crime, suicide, and education problems.  These problems need to be addressed through their shared pathway and not individually.  To start a program a jurisdiction needs reliable information on the nature and extent of the problem in their area.  They need to know at what age amphetamines were first used, the level of use by age groups, the differences in gender use, what age is the heaviest use, the forms of risky us ad the problems that occur.  A jurisdiction also needs to know what resources and support are available to them.  As a program is being planned and implemented it is important to involve the young people the plan intends to target, and it is important for the program to follow the youth through their development and not erode over time.  The programs may include classroom instructions, peer helper programs parent education, or mentoring for at risk students.  A decision needs to be made as to what form of prevention the program will use.  There is selective prevention where you target you with risk factors.  Universal prevention targets all youth through internet, television, comics and so on.  School based skill building models teach decision making, goal setting, stress management, and assertiveness and communication skills.  The alternative approach believes that you are less likely to use amphetamines if they are involved in other satisfying activities. (UN 2007)

Legally, amphetamines are classified as schedule II drugs under the title Central Nervous System(CNS) stimulants.  It is illegal to manufacture, distribute, or possess any controlled substance.  If you are convicted of manufacturing, distributing, or possessing more than 5 grams of amphetamines or methamphetamines you could face 5-40 years in prison and or a fine of up to $5 million.  If the use or distribution of the substance causes death, the minimum prison sentence is increased to 20 years.  Minimum sentences or increased by 10 years for repeat offenses and the fine can increase to as much as $10 million.  The penalties are increased if the conviction for manufacturing, distributing, or possession is more than 50 grams. (Laws)

I have never thought about what should or could be done to prevent drug abuse or misuse.  I believe prevention should be targeted at middle school children,  I don’t believe children younger than that would understand or care what is being told to them, and older than that may be too late.  Programs that start in the middle school should continue through high school.  Many youth who do not participate in sports or other after school activities hang out with friends after school and that is when trouble starts.  If there were safe places for these kids to hang out in the community and do things they may not sit around and think of ways to get into trouble.  Community programs could include a gym, cultural arts, or just a place to hang and talk.  Many kids with a problem are afraid to get help because they don’t want their parents to find out, so counseling at the programs would be beneficial.  Group therapy is beneficial to giving each other support and maybe even preventing another youth from trying a drug.  Kids listen to each other more than adults.  Police cannot be everywhere and stop everything, so we need more programs to prevent the youth from starting to use drugs and them maybe we would need less facilities to treat them.

Resources:

Laws.com. (n.d.). Amphetamine. Retrieved from http://drugs.laws.com/amphetamine

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2007). Preventing amphetamine-type stimulant use among young people. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/youthnet/ATS.pdf

Continued project

July 6th, 2014

Medical amphetamines are generally taken orally.  They also have skin patches of one brand of ADHD medication, that I know of, for people who do not like to swallow pills.  Methamphetamines are often taken orally or insufflated by beginners.  Methamphetamine users progress to intravenous use and may sometimes smoke it.  The Hydrochloride salt of Meth can be smoked.  During the withdrawal phase, Meth may be used with alcohol or marijuana. (National Hwy)  There is a one hour lag with oral amphetamines before the onset of symptoms with peak plasma concentration occurring 2-3 hours after ingestion.  The effects can be felt in minutes with insufflation and intravenous use.  Peak concentration occurs 5 minutes after injection and 30 minutes after insufflation.  The affects of amphetamines can last 10-12 hrs. (Medscape 2012)

I do not do well with science and do not understand biology and the effects drugs have on the brain.  This section of how Amphetamines effect the synapse was difficult for me.  I understand that through several different processes, Amphetamines increase synaptic levels of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine neurotransmitters.  The drug binds to these neurotransmitters and reverses their function, this causes the neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic cleft and blocks reuptake.  Amphetamine impairs excitatory synaptic transmission through the release of dopamine acting at D1/D5 receptors.  The impairment is reversible.  The time course of the synaptic impairment may mean that in order to release dopamine, amphetamines may need to enter presynaptic terminals. (Mair 2007)  A study done on rats showed that two days after discontinued injections of amphetamines the rats ate more food and gained a considerate amount of weight over a 30 day period.  This is consistent with the findings that withdrawals from drug abuse can cause overeating and weight gain.  The weight gain after the discontinued use of drugs may be similar to the amphetamine- induced sensitization mechanisms involved  in reward motivation. (Orsini 2014)

Amphetamines have many serious psychological effects.  These effects may include anxiety and paranoia, which may lead to social disorder.  They may also experience obsessive behavior, aggression and violent behavior.  Other behavioral changes may also include loss of sex drive, disorientation, difficulty learning new material, over excitement, and nervousness. (Amphetamines.com)

Amphetamines have many scary symptoms of acute toxicity.  These symptoms may include; dizziness, tremors, irritability, confusion, hallucinations, chest pain, palpitation, hypertension, sweating, and cardiac arrhythmia.  Hyperpyrexia, convulsions, and shock may be followed by death. (Toxnet 1999)

Abnormal mental conditions are more common in chronic toxicity of Amphetamine use, but the symptoms may be similar to acute overdose.  Weight loss is a symptom of chronic use.  Chronic toxicity of amphetamines may be mistaken for Schizophrenia because it may cause a psychotic reaction with vivid hallucinations and paranoid delusions.  Chronic use may cause microvascular damage, neuronal chromatolysis, and extreme long lasting, or permanent, reduction of dopamine. (Toxnet 1999)

Amphetamines have a high potential for dependence.  Amphetamines cause changes in the body and brain chemistry and may make people feel they cannot live without it.  People with Bipolar and antisocial disorder have chemical imbalances in their brains and are at a higher risk for amphetamine dependence. (Amphetamine.com)

There are a few current beneficial uses of amphetamines.  Amphetamines and Methamphetamines may be used to treat narcolepsy, ADD, and ADHD.  Amphetamines may be used to treat weight control, but methamphetamines are infrequently used to treat obesity, overeating disorders, and weight loss because of its high potential for abuse. (National Hwy)

In my experience Amphetamines can be very beneficial.  In third grade my son was flunking all of his classes, I thought he had a learning disability.  He was tested for ADHD and subsequently put on ADHD medication.  His grades went up to A’s and B’s by his next report card.  I would not recommend discontinuing the use of amphetamines, but their use needs to be closely monitored because of it potential for abuse.  Amphetamine abuse has very serious consequences and can lead to death.  Any signs of abuse need to be quickly addressed and treated.

Resources:

Amphetamines.com. (n.d.). Psychological Effects of Amphetamines. Retrieved from http://amphetamines.com/effects/psychological-effects-of-amphetamines/

Mair, Robert D., Kaver, Julie A. (2007). Amphetamine depresses excitatory synaptic transmission at prefrontal cortical layer V synapses. Neuropharmacology. 52(1), 193-199. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.07.004

Medscape. (2012). Amphetamine Toxicity. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/812518-overview

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.). Methamphetamine (and Amphetamine). Retrieved from http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/research/job185drugs/methamphetamine.htm

Orsini, C. A., Ginton, G., Shimp, K. G., Avena, N. M., Gold M. S., & Setlow, B. (2014). Food consumption and weight gain after cessation of chronic amphetamine administration. Appetite. 78, 76-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.03.013

Toxnet. (1999). Amphetamines, Human Health Effects. retrieved from http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+3287

Topical Project-Amphetamines

June 29th, 2014

Both of my children have ADHD and are on medication.  I know ADHD medication is highly regulated.  There are no refills on prescriptions, and the prescriptions cannot be called in, faxed in, or electronically sent to a pharmacy.  I had to drive to the clinic, pick up the prescription and drive it to the pharmacy.  I have to sign the back of the prescription, and sign the pharmacies system when picking the pills up.  I was not aware until I took a class in Alcohol and other drugs, that the medication was amphetamines.  I decided to do my topical project on Amphetamines to learn ore about what my children are taking.

Amphetamines are not a naturally occurring substance.  Amphetamines are synthetically created in a lab using Ephedra.  There is currently no FDA approved use for Ephedra in the US and is illegal. (amphetamines.com)

Some types of amphetamines are; Ecstasy, Speed, Ice, methamphetamine, and ADHD medications such as Adderall.  Amphetamines come in different forms such as; different colored powders and capsules, and crystals or crystalline powder.  (Ceida)

Amphetamines were synthetically created by a Romanian chemist, Lazar Edeleanu, in 1887.  It was synthetically created from a chemical found in a plant called Ma-Huange.  This plant is found in China. (Amphetamines.com)

The first medical use of amphetamines was in the 1920’s for asthma when it was discovered that they dilated bronchial sacs in the lungs.  The Benzadine inhaler was introduced in 1932 and quickly became abused.  By the mid 1930’s teens and young adults removed the amphetamine strip from the inhalers and placed them in coffee or chewed them and swallowed them for a cheap high.  Amphetamines became the most abused drug of the 1930’s.  In 1937 Bensedrine Sulfate tablets were approved bu the American Medical Association for the treatment of narcolepsy, postencephalitie Parkinsonsim, and minor depression.  In the 1950’s and 1960’s Amphetamines were used by WWII soldiers, long haul truck drivers, and college students to stay up for long periods of time.  Amphetamines were also used by athletes for energy.  Amphetamines are used today to treat ADHD, but its use is limited. (amphetamines.com)

According to the results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the drug use in a lifetime among persons 12 or older for Ecstasy in 2012 was 6.2%.  Stimulant use was 8.3%, and methamphetamine use was 4.7%.  Substance abuse or dependence for stimulants for ages 12 and up was .2% (Substance Abuse, 2013)

According to the Treatment Episode Data Set Report from 2009, the percentage of admissions who reported abuse of methamphetamines remained  stable at 8% from 1997 – 2000.  Admissions peaked in 2005 at 13% and then declined to 12% in 2006 and 2007. (Substance Abuse, 2009)

The Drug Abuse Warning Network reported drug misuse and abuse emergency department visits of amphetamines to be a weighted annual estimate of 34,085 in 2004.  These visits were lowest in 2007 at 21,545 visits.  The number of visits sharply increased after that and by 2011 was more than double the 2004 amount at 70,831 visits.

Resources:

Amphetamines.com. (n.d.) History of Amphetamines, and Natural Amphetamines.  Retrieved from http://amphetamines.com/

Ceida. (n.d.) Amphetamie-Type Stimulants.  Retrieved from http://www.ceida.net.au/stimulants/amphetamine-type.asp

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (October 1, 2009). The TEDS Report: Trends in Methamphetamine Admissions to Treatment: 1997-2007. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k9/209/209MethTrends2k9.htm

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings and Detailed Tables. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/dawn.aspx#DAWN 2011 ED Excel Files – National Tables