“May you never forget what is worth remembering nor ever remember what is best forgotten.”[1] Many people of Irish heritage wish that they could forget the terrible time period that their home country went through in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the penal days. Britain’s invasion of Ireland sparked a rebellion against the British government, dance was one their resources, and further lead to the globalization of Ireland’s traditional dance style.

Irish Cultural history has many different angles and components that make this genre of history up. There are multiple components, but the three that are the most focused on are literature, language, and cultural dancing/ music. These are the main ways that were used to revive Irish Culture. These were the ways that helped identify themselves as being Irish and made them proud.

Irish Literature was changing, in the way it was being written and for its purpose that it served in Irish Culture. It was changing from being entertainment and sheer fiction and enjoyment, to being for telling stories of the past and about the culture of Ireland. As well as that, it also had different influences the topics being written from other countries. The article Irish Revival Reappraised, the author states that there is an “American influence.”[2] As well as the influence from other locations abroad from Ireland, but there were also local influences on the writing technique and topics.

Even though Gaelic is not Irelands Primary Language, it was at one point in the history of the country. There are still some small towns in Ireland that still uses Gaelic as their primary source of communication, but a majority of Ireland does not use Irish Gaelic, they use English. This is because of the British invading and banning all things that were associated with Gaelic culture, including their native language. It was only continued to be spoken in the rural Irish Countryside. When the Gaelic revival league reached full force they attempted to revive the native language, but were only successful in small portions of the country, the rest stuck with English as staying in their primary language.

The last major portion of Irish culture is the traditional dancing and music, which can be tied together into one category. These are the two things that are usually most strongly associated with Gaelic and Irish Culture. It is also part one of the strongest traditions of Ireland even though it was taken away from them for a while, people used this in private while it was banned. It was almost a way of private protest for them. It could have been their way of going against the British government and soldiers, but they were not actually asking for trouble they just wanted to morally stand up for themselves.[3] Irish Culture was broadly made aware to people across the world using dance and the famous Jig dances that people saw and the up-tempo peppy Irish music everyone has come to learn and love, but it has become much more than that. It is now a competitive world of its own.

Irish Cultural history is composed of multiple of different aspects. They are equally important when studying the culture of Ireland. This is a more broad way to look at why Irish Dancing evolved the way it did and the other components of Cultural Ireland. These were all things that the Gaelic revival leagues used when they were in attempt to revive their culture.

There is not much evidence that is exactly from the time period of the invasion of Britain into Ireland and the revolution of Ireland against Britain, there is however evidence from of the time period that was produced after the fact. This is because if a soldier found any evidence, such as a journal or any writing it was burned or somehow destroyed. So we do not have many primary sources available, but after the Republic of Ireland was official free some people started to speak about what was happening because this is still a time when not many people were literate, so they could not write about what happened. But, there still were so many who were too ashamed to speak about what they went through and what they saw. There are many brave souls, such as, Mary Beattie who told about what she went through as a child of the occupation and what she saw in her hometown in Ireland during the revolution, that provide a way for historians to look at the time of the invasion and the cultural impact it had on Ireland.

Oral History is a thought provoking medium of history because is more of a personal history, you here the person directly speaking instead of reading a piece of paper. The thought provoking oral history provided by Mary Beattie, a child of the British invasion of Ireland and a daughter of the revolution. Beattie thinks back to the time when dancing and anything to do with Gaelic culture was banned in Ireland. She tells what they did as children to find ways around the ban of dancing. But she also addresses other topics that came along with the invasion/ occupation of Ireland by the British and United Kingdom, such as: food rationing and dealing with the poverty of the time period. The author’s (speaker in this case) point of view is on the side that would feel some form of hatred or angry because their culture and lifestyle was stolen away from them by the British. It is suggested that she was almost reminiscing about what life was like, but not necessarily because when one reminisces it is usually on something positive, she was thinking back to a time in her life that was dark and that she was not happy about or what seemed for her and anyone else that was living through that time period, was proud to say that they were there to be occupied by Britain.

This oral history was created to see the side of what happened during the time of the invasion, but after the invasion and rebellion was over because everything from the time was burned or destroyed, there is no Irish evidence of what truly happened. The purpose was to see what happened from the perspective of an Irish person who lived through the time of struggle and a ban on their culture. She might not be completely telling us what she saw or share all things she saw, it would be believed from what we know on biased stories or documents that it is typical that only certain things are added to make their point more significant or that their side would seem more right. This oral history would most like be considered to be a qualitative analysis over a quantitative analysis because it right from her telling us what she was experiencing and seeing as a child, and she explains what rights were taken away from her as child living in Ireland during this time period. This is also one individuals interpretation of what was happening to her and her family as well as what she saw her neighbors were experiencing and how it affect them.[4]

This purpose and author of this oral history relate to the event/ phenomenon that occurred in Ireland because her whole childhood was consumed and stolen away because the British invaded and the Irish rebelled. Her knowledge of the phenomenon/ event occurring is more reliable than a secondary source because she was there and had a first- hand account with what was occurring. At this point in time there would be no reason why she would have to avoid telling the truth because Ireland was a free, independent republic and there was no more intimidation of the British or British soldiers. She did not have to fear being caught or getting in trouble with what she saw, it was actually encouraged by the Gaelic revival league. They believed that it would help people understand and appreciate Gaelic culture if the people of Ireland, and around the world, understand that there was a time when it was taken away from them. The purpose of this oral history was to show the world that the British stole from the Irish and there is a chance that she may be encouraged to embellish her memories of the invasion and the rebellion. Beattie did not just flat out lie, but she definitely would have colored her testimony against the British.[5]

There were very few people who decided to speak out about what they experienced so that we as historians could look back on what the British stole from the Irish when they invaded. It would be interesting to look at other oral histories from others who were living through the invasion and the rebellion to see what was occurring in their area of Ireland. As well as to see what the people in the United kingdom, Britain and Scotland, thought about what they were doing to Ireland or if there were any journals from soldiers like we have from the American Civil War. There could be a debate on how reliable this source is because she would most likely have a biased view on what occurred because she saw the down side of all that happened and she was rather upset, rightfully so, about what was occurring in Ireland. If there were documents examined from a British point of view, it would be helpful because it would show the parts that line up on both points of view would be more prominent and help with almost evening out the bias views from both sides of what occurred in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Irish dance is one of the many Gaelic cultural traditions that were stolen away from Ireland, when the British invaded their land. But, the Irish people had very little tolerance when they were in private to what was being taken away. They may not have been the type of people to storm the street in an angry mob protest, but somewhat silently they would gather in their homes and dance behind doors as a way of showing up the British, because they were rebelling against the new laws that were formed. “Some historians believe that the stiff upper body seen in Irish dancing today came as a result of children being taught the footwork without moving their upper bodies so they couldn’t be seen through the windows while they practiced.”[6] The British soldiers typically did not realize what was occurring beyond what they could see because they were not usually smart, at this time.

Body 2: Sean Nós dancing

During the time of the Penal days many horrific things were happening throughout Ireland, “Protestants were depicted as having been horribly murdered without mercy, often by gleeful rebels who were only too happy to dispatch them.”[7] The British were acting as if this was something that was there for enjoyment because this is what their daily readings were starting to encompass, as if it was not a serious action that their people were committing. “British banned all Gaelic cultural traditions during the 400-year period known as the Penal Days. Through this adversity, a beautiful art form was born.”[8] So they were almost completely stripped of what made them different and identify themselves as being Irish. That was at least while they were in public they were not able to have anything that was related to Irish culture. Also if they were found writing about the time or going against them Penal Laws they were usually killed and the evidence was burned immediately.

Gaelic revival league gained momentum after the Penal laws were lifted and those days of oppression ended. This dance form was something that evolved behind closed doors. This was a time of dancers who often used small spaces and they would make the surface slippery to make it more of a challenge. Their goal was revive Irish culture including, the traditional language which today in Ireland there are some small communities that their primary language is Gaelic, but mostly they still use English as their primary language. They also would hold regional dance competitions called Oireachtas.[9] Connecting to Oireachtas, there was also the push to bring back traditional Irish music; reels, jigs, and hornpipes.

When the Potato Famine hit Ireland in the 1840s, it sent millions of Irish people to America in search of place where they could have a better life.[10] Due to many peoples experience in many years of dancing they went in to show business and worked in places like Vaudeville or other shows where they could show off their skills. When they came over to America they would continue to practice in their homes and they would have small gatherings and feiseanna or feis (dance festivals or competitions). In America many years after the big migration of Irish, there were shows that were using Irish Culture and their heritage to bring Irish dancing to the World stage. The two shows that are most heard of, and were the most success for the rising fame of Irish dance were Lord of Dance and Riverdance. Not only did these shows help globalize Irish dance, but they were also a way of Irish people realizing that they should be proud of their heritage even though it may not all be possible, but it made their home country the one that it is today. The world of Irish Dance has grown so much that it is a world of its own and the competitiveness of the culture and sport, that there is now a worldwide competition that involved people from where there is no presence of Irish culture, ie. Japan and Russia to name a few. This worldwide competition is considered the Olympics of this sport. The people around the world that participate are usually either in it because of some sort of cultural/heritage connection, interested in Irish Culture, or just because the complexity and challenge of the style caught their eye.

There were many things that came out of the British invasion of Ireland one is the globalization of Ireland due to the Irish using dance as a form of social protest during the Penal Days. There are many aspects of Irish culture, dancing and music, literature, and Gaelic traditional language. Irish dance was a form of silent and private social protest that the Irish did because they typically were not the type of people to storm the streets in angry protest. During the Penal Days the British would brutally murder Irish Protestants gleefully. As well as taking away anything that was associated with Gaelic culture. The Gaelic Revival League gained strong momentum after the Penal laws were lifted and they tried to bring back all things surrounding Gaelic. But the globalization of Irish dance can mostly be credited to shows such as Lord of the Dance and Riverdance. (Lord of the dance or Riverdance quote)

 

 

Bibliography

Beattie, Mary. “Oral History.” (1910).

Gibney, John. Protestant Interests? The 1641 Rebellion and State Formation in Early Modern Ireland 84, 223 (February 2011): 67-86.

Howard, Mark. “A Brief History of Irish Dancing.” Trinity Academy of Irish Dance: (2006).

Meyer, Moe. Dance and the Politics of Orality: A Study of the Irish “Scoil Rince” 27, 1 (April 1995): 25-39.

Nickles, Greg. We Came to America: The Irish.



[1] Irish Blessing

[2] Betsey Taylor Fitzsimons and James H. Murphy, page 602

[3] Nickles, Greg “We came to North America: The Irish”

[4] Whole paragraph: Oral History, Mary Beattie

[5] Whole Paragraph: Oral History, Mary Beattie

[6] Mark Howard. “A Brief History of Irish Dance.” Trinity Academy of Irish Dance.

[7] Gibney J. “Protestant Interests? The 1641 rebellion and state formation in Early Modern Ireland.”

[8] Mark Howard. “A Brief History of Irish Dance.” Trinity Academy of Irish Dance.

[9] Moe Meyer. Dance and the Politics of Orality: A Study of the Irish “Scoil Rince.”

[10] Mark Howard. “A Brief History of Irish Dance.” Trinity Academy of Irish Dance.

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: December 16, 2014, 1:57 am | No Comments »

“May you never forget what is worth remembering nor ever remember what is best forgotten.”[1] Britain’s invasion of Ireland sparked a rebellion against the British government, dance was one their resources, and further lead to the globalization of Ireland’s traditional dance style.

Irish Cultural history has many different angles and components that make this genre of history up. There are multiple components, but the three that are the most focused on are literature, language, and cultural dancing/ music. These are the main ways that were used to revive Irish Culture. These were the ways that helped identify themselves as being Irish and made them proud.

Irish Literature was changing, in the way it was being written and for its purpose that it served in Irish Culture. It was changing from being entertainment and sheer fiction and enjoyment, to being for telling stories of the past and about the culture of Ireland. As well as that, it also had different influences the topics being written from other countries. The article Irish Revival Reappraised, the author states that there is an “American influence.”[2] As well as the influence from other locations abroad from Ireland, but there were also local influences on the writing technique and topics.

Even though Gaelic is not Irelands Primary Language, it was at one point in the history of the country. There are still some small towns in Ireland that still uses Gaelic as their primary source of communication, but a majority of Ireland does not use Irish Gaelic, they use English. This is because of the British invading and banning all things that were associated with Gaelic culture, including their native language. It was only continued to be spoken in the rural Irish Countryside. When the Gaelic revival league reached full force they attempted to revive the native language, but were only successful in small portions of the country, the rest stuck with English as staying in their primary language.

The last major portion of Irish culture is the traditional dancing and music, which can be tied together into one category. These are the two things that are usually most strongly associated with Gaelic and Irish Culture. It is also part one of the strongest traditions of Ireland even though it was taken away from them for a while, people used this in private while it was banned. It was almost a way of private protest for them. It could have been their way of going against the British government and soldiers, but they were not actually asking for trouble they just wanted to morally stand up for themselves.[3] Irish Culture was broadly made aware to people across the world using dance and the famous Jig dances that people saw and the up-tempo peppy Irish music everyone has come to learn and love, but it has become much more than that. It is now a competitive world of its own.

Irish Cultural history is composed of multiple of different aspects. They are equally important when studying the culture of Ireland. This is a more broad way to look at why Irish Dancing evolved the way it did and the other components of Cultural Ireland. These were all things that the Gaelic revival leagues used when they were in attempt to revive their culture.

There is not much evidence that is exactly from the time period of the invasion of Britain into Ireland and the revolution of Ireland against Britain, there is however evidence from of the time period that was produced after the fact. This is because if a soldier found any evidence, such as a journal or any writing it was burned or somehow destroyed. So we do not have many primary sources available, but after the Republic of Ireland was official free some people started to speak about what was happening because this is still a time when not many people were literate, so they could not write about what happened. But, there still were so many who were too ashamed to speak about what they went through and what they saw. There are many brave souls, such as, Mary Beattie who told about what she went through as a child of the occupation and what she saw in her hometown in Ireland during the revolution, that provide a way for historians to look at the time of the invasion and the cultural impact it had on Ireland.

Oral History is a thought provoking medium of history because is more of a personal history, you here the person directly speaking instead of reading a piece of paper. The thought provoking oral history provided by Mary Beattie, a child of the British invasion of Ireland and a daughter of the revolution. Beattie thinks back to the time when dancing and anything to do with Gaelic culture was banned in Ireland. She tells what they did as children to find ways around the ban of dancing. But she also addresses other topics that came along with the invasion/ occupation of Ireland by the British and United Kingdom, such as: food rationing and dealing with the poverty of the time period. The author’s (speaker in this case) point of view is on the side that would feel some form of hatred or angry because their culture and lifestyle was stolen away from them by the British. It is suggested that she was almost reminiscing about what life was like, but not necessarily because when one reminisces it is usually on something positive, she was thinking back to a time in her life that was dark and that she was not happy about or what seemed for her and anyone else that was living through that time period, was proud to say that they were there to be occupied by Britain.

This oral history was created to see the side of what happened during the time of the invasion, but after the invasion and rebellion was over because everything from the time was burned or destroyed, there is no Irish evidence of what truly happened. The purpose was to see what happened from the perspective of an Irish person who lived through the time of struggle and a ban on their culture. She might not be completely telling us what she saw or share all things she saw, it would be believed from what we know on biased stories or documents that it is typical that only certain things are added to make their point more significant or that their side would seem more right. This oral history would most like be considered to be a qualitative analysis over a quantitative analysis because it right from her telling us what she was experiencing and seeing as a child, and she explains what rights were taken away from her as child living in Ireland during this time period. This is also one individuals interpretation of what was happening to her and her family as well as what she saw her neighbors were experiencing and how it affect them.[4]

This purpose and author of this oral history relate to the event/ phenomenon that occurred in Ireland because her whole childhood was consumed and stolen away because the British invaded and the Irish rebelled. Her knowledge of the phenomenon/ event occurring is more reliable than a secondary source because she was there and had a first- hand account with what was occurring. At this point in time there would be no reason why she would have to avoid telling the truth because Ireland was a free, independent republic and there was no more intimidation of the British or British soldiers. She did not have to fear being caught or getting in trouble with what she saw, it was actually encouraged by the Gaelic revival league. They believed that it would help people understand and appreciate Gaelic culture if the people of Ireland, and around the world, understand that there was a time when it was taken away from them. The purpose of this oral history was to show the world that the British stole from the Irish and there is a chance that she may be encouraged to embellish her memories of the invasion and the rebellion. Beattie did not just flat out lie, but she definitely would have colored her testimony against the British.[5]

There were very few people who decided to speak out about what they experienced so that we as historians could look back on what the British stole from the Irish when they invaded. It would be interesting to look at other oral histories from others who were living through the invasion and the rebellion to see what was occurring in their area of Ireland. As well as to see what the people in the United kingdom, Britain and Scotland, thought about what they were doing to Ireland or if there were any journals from soldiers like we have from the American Civil War. There could be a debate on how reliable this source is because she would most likely have a biased view on what occurred because she saw the down side of all that happened and she was rather upset, rightfully so, about what was occurring in Ireland. If there were documents examined from a British point of view, it would be helpful because it would show the parts that line up on both points of view would be more prominent and help with almost evening out the bias views from both sides of what occurred in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Irish dance is one of the many Gaelic cultural traditions that were stolen away from Ireland, when the British invaded their land. But, the Irish people had very little tolerance when they were in private to what was being taken away. They may not have been the type of people to storm the street in an angry mob protest, but somewhat silently they would gather in their homes and dance behind doors as a way of showing up the British, because they were rebelling against the new laws that were formed. “Some historians believe that the stiff upper body seen in Irish dancing today came as a result of children being taught the footwork without moving their upper bodies so they couldn’t be seen through the windows while they practiced.”[6] The British soldiers typically did not realize what was occurring beyond what they could see because they were not usually smart, at this time.

Body 2: Sean Nós dancing

During the time of the Penal days many horrific things were happening throughout Ireland, “Protestants were depicted as having been horribly murdered without mercy, often by gleeful rebels who were only too happy to dispatch them.”[7] The British were acting as if this was something that was there for enjoyment because this is what their daily readings were starting to encompass, as if it was not a serious action that their people were committing. “British banned all Gaelic cultural traditions during the 400-year period known as the Penal Days. Through this adversity, a beautiful art form was born.”[8] So they were almost completely stripped of what made them different and identify themselves as being Irish. That was at least while they were in public they were not able to have anything that was related to Irish culture. Also if they were found writing about the time or going against them Penal Laws they were usually killed and the evidence was burned immediately.

Gaelic revival league gained momentum after the Penal laws were lifted and those days of oppression ended. This dance form was something that evolved behind closed doors. This was a time of dancers who often used small spaces and they would make the surface slippery to make it more of a challenge. Their goal was revive Irish culture including, the traditional language which today in Ireland there are some small communities that their primary language is Gaelic, but mostly they still use English as their primary language. They also would hold regional dance competitions called Oireachtas.[9] Connecting to Oireachtas, there was also the push to bring back traditional Irish music; reels, jigs, and hornpipes. (transitional sentence)

When the Potato Famine hit Ireland in the 1840s, it sent millions of Irish people to America in search of place where they could have a better life.[10] Due to many peoples experience in many years of dancing they went in to show business and worked in places like Vaudeville or other shows where they could show off their skills. When they came over to America they would continue to practice in their homes and they would have small gatherings and feiseanna or feis (dance festivals or competitions). In America many years after the big migration of Irish, there were shows that were using Irish Culture and their heritage to bring Irish dancing to the World stage. The two shows that are most heard of, and were the most success for the rising fame of Irish dance were Lord of Dance and Riverdance. Not only did these shows help globalize Irish dance, but they were also a way of Irish people realizing that they should be proud of their heritage even though it may not all be possible, but it made their home country the one that it is today. The world of Irish Dance has grown so much that it is a world of its own and the competitiveness of the culture and sport, that there is now a worldwide competition that involved people from where there is no presence of Irish culture, ie. Japan and Russia to name a few. This worldwide competition is considered the Olympics of this sport. The people around the world that participate are usually either in it because of some sort of cultural/heritage connection, interested in Irish Culture, or just because the complexity and challenge of the style caught their eye.

There were many things that came out of the British invasion of Ireland one is the globalization of Ireland due to the Irish using dance as a form of social protest during the Penal Days. There are many aspects of Irish culture, dancing and music, literature, and Gaelic traditional language. Irish dance was a form of silent and private social protest that the Irish did because they typically were not the type of people to storm the streets in angry protest. During the Penal Days the British would brutally murder Irish Protestants gleefully. As well as taking away anything that was associated with Gaelic culture. The Gaelic Revival League gained strong momentum after the Penal laws were lifted and they tried to bring back all things surrounding Gaelic. But the globalization of Irish dance can mostly be credited to shows such as Lord of the Dance and Riverdance. (Lord of the dance or Riverdance quote)

 

 

ADD IN END BIBLIOGRAPHY



[1] Irish Blessing

[2] Betsey Taylor Fitzsimons and James H. Murphy, page 602

[3] Nickles, Greg “We came to North America: The Irish”

[4] Whole paragraph: Oral History, Mary Beattie

[5] Whole Paragraph: Oral History, Mary Beattie

[6] Mark Howard. “A Brief History of Irish Dance.” Trinity Academy of Irish Dance.

[7] Gibney J. “Protestant Interests? The 1641 rebellion and state formation in Early Modern Ireland.”

[8] Mark Howard. “A Brief History of Irish Dance.” Trinity Academy of Irish Dance.

[9] Moe Meyer. Dance and the Politics of Orality: A Study of the Irish “Scoil Rince.

[10] Mark Howard. “A Brief History of Irish Dance.” Trinity Academy of Irish Dance.

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: December 9, 2014, 2:43 am | No Comments »

25  Nov
Project Map

I)                   Introduction

  1. Using a quotation as an attention getter just have to find one that does justice to show the position and voice that this paper is going to take.
  2. Voice is on the side of Irish and their views of what was going on during the invasion and how it impacted them culturally.
  3. The problem in this paper is looking at how the British invasion and control of Ireland impacted the country culturally, but more specifically focusing on how it changed traditional Irish Dance.
  4. THESIS: Britain’s invasion of Ireland sparked a rebellion against the British government, dance was one of their resources, and the globalization of Ireland’s traditional dance style.

II)                Historical Context

  1. Ireland 17th and 18th centuries primarly
  2. What dance was being used for, like why were people doing before and during the invasion

III)             Historiography

  1. Cultural history is examined

(1)   Irish literature

(2)   Primary language

(3)   Dance and music

IV)             The Body (not the final organization of the paper)

  1. Social Protest: rebellion during the invasion

(1)   It was in private not something that they did in the streets it was mainly just for them knowing that they were somewhat standing up for themselves.

(2)   They would dance behind the half open barn doors, where only the tops were open. This is reason why Irish dancers do not traditionally use their arms. Since the soldiers were not the smartest it just looked as if people were just jumping up and down. (Mark Howard, Founder and Artistic Director of Trinity Academy of Irish Dance)

(3)   No arms as mentioned above

  1. Gaelic Revival League: The reason that Irish Dance was able to globalized

(1)   Oireachtas: Regional competitive gathering to see what types of dancing each region was doing, this is something that is still going on nowadays (Dance and the Politics of Orality: A Study of the Irish “Scoil Rince” by Moe Meyer)

(2)   Bringing back culture by using traditional music and a version of tradition Irish Dance

  1. Costumes and Wigs:

(1)   Sunday Best: dresses for girls, vests for boys, and the curly hair (wigs nowadays)

(2)   Attention getter

(3)   Unique to each specific dancer and school and the tradition Celtic designs are unique to the region of Ireland the school originated from

  1. Sean nós dancing: origins and shows the change of dancing

(1)   Dancing before invasion

(2)   Smaller space you could dance on the better and the use of brooms

(3)   Passed down from through generations

(4)   “one-upmanship” at family gatherings (Mark Howard)

  1. Penal Laws: Banned all things related to Gaelic Culture

(1)   “Throughout history, these ancient dances were never documented nor recorded due to Ireland’s occupation by England, which controlled the history’s documentation. In Ireland, the British banned all Gaelic cultural traditions during the 400-year period known as the Penal Days” (Trinity).

(2)   Language: forced to learn English and ends becoming primary language

(3)   Separation of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

(4)   1690s-1720s approximately (Jacqueline Hill, 96)

V)                Conclusion

  1. The globalization of Irish dance and the evolution of the traditional dance style was impacted by the invasion of the British in the seventeenth century.
  2. Some profound quote on the evolution of Irish dance

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: November 25, 2014, 2:55 am | No Comments »

11  Nov
Historiography

Irish Cultural history has many different angles and components that make this genre of history up. There are multiple components, but the three that are the most focused on are literature, language, and cultural dancing/ music. These are the main ways that were used to revive Irish Culture. These were the ways that helped identify themselves as being Irish and made them proud.

Irish Literature was changing, in the way it was being written and for its purpose that it served in Irish Culture. It was changing from being entertainment and sheer fiction and enjoyment, to being for telling stories of the past and about the culture of Ireland. As well as that, it also had different influences the topics being written from other countries. The article Irish Revival Reappraised, the author states that there is an “American influence.”[1] As well as the influence from other locations abroad from Ireland, but there were also local influences on the writing technique and topics.

Even though Gaelic is not Irelands Primary Language, it was at one point in the history of the country. There are still some small towns in Ireland that still uses Gaelic as their primary source of communication, but a majority of Ireland does not use Irish Gaelic, they use English. This is because of the British invading and banning all things that were associated with Gaelic culture, including their native language. It was only continued to be spoken in the rural Irish Countryside. When the Gaelic revival league reached full force they attempted to revive the native language, but were only successful in small portions of the country, the rest stuck with English as staying in their primary language.

The last major portion of Irish culture is the traditional dancing and music, which can be tied together into one category. These are the two things that are usually most strongly associated with Gaelic and Irish Culture. It is also part one of the strongest traditions of Ireland even though it was taken away from them for a while, people used this in private while it was banned. It was almost a way of private protest for them. It could have been their way of going against the British government and soldiers, but they were not actually asking for trouble they just wanted to morally stand up for themselves.[2] Irish Culture was broadly made aware to people across the world using dance and the famous Jig dances that people saw and the up-tempo peppy Irish music everyone has come to learn and love, but it has become much more than that. It is now a competitive world of its own.

Irish Cultural history is composed of multiple of different aspects. They are equally important when studying the culture of Ireland. This is a more broad way to look at why Irish Dancing evolved the way it did and the other components of Cultural Ireland. These were all things that the Gaelic revival leagues used when they were in attempt to revive their culture.



[1] Betsey Taylor Fitzsimons and James H. Murphy, page 602

[2] Nickles, Greg “We came to North America: The Irish”

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: November 11, 2014, 3:53 am | No Comments »

There is not much evidence that is exactly from the time period of the invasion of Britain into Ireland and the revolution of Ireland against Britain, there is however evidence from of the time period that was produced after the fact. This is because if a soldier found any evidence, such as a journal or any writing it was burned or somehow destroyed. So we do not have many primary sources available, but after the Republic of Ireland was official free some people started to speak about what was happening because this is still a time when not many people were literate, so they could not write about what happened. But, there still were so many who were too ashamed to speak about what they went through and what they saw. There are many brave souls, such as, Mary Beattie who told about what she went through as a child of the occupation and what she saw in her hometown in Ireland during the revolution, that provide a way for historians to look at the time of the invasion and the cultural impact it had on Ireland.

Oral History is a thought provoking medium of history because is more of a personal history, you here the person directly speaking instead of reading a piece of paper. The thought provoking oral history provided by Mary Beattie, a child of the British invasion of Ireland and a daughter of the revolution. Beattie thinks back to the time when dancing and anything to do with Gaelic culture was banned in Ireland. She tells what they did as children to find ways around the ban of dancing. But she also addresses other topics that came along with the invasion/ occupation of Ireland by the British and United Kingdom, such as: food rationing and dealing with the poverty of the time period. The author’s (speaker in this case) point of view is on the side that would feel some form of hatred or angry because their culture and lifestyle was stolen away from them by the British. It is suggested that she was almost reminiscing about what life was like, but not necessarily because when one reminisces it is usually on something positive, she was thinking back to a time in her life that was dark and that she was not happy about or what seemed for her and anyone else that was living through that time period, was proud to say that they were there to be occupied by Britain.

This oral history was created to see the side of what happened during the time of the invasion, but after the invasion and rebellion was over because everything from the time was burned or destroyed, there is no Irish evidence of what truly happened. The purpose was to see what happened from the perspective of an Irish person who lived through the time of struggle and a ban on their culture. She might not be completely telling us what she saw or share all things she saw, it would be believed from what we know on biased stories or documents that it is typical that only certain things are added to make their point more significant or that their side would seem more right. This oral history would most like be considered to be a qualitative analysis over a quantitative analysis because it right from her telling us what she was experiencing and seeing as a child, and she explains what rights were taken away from her as child living in Ireland during this time period. This is also one individuals interpretation of what was happening to her and her family as well as what she saw her neighbors were experiencing and how it affect them.

This purpose and author of this oral history relate to the event/ phenomenon that occurred in Ireland because her whole childhood was consumed and stolen away because the British invaded and the Irish rebelled. Her knowledge of the phenomenon/ event occurring is more reliable than a secondary source because she was there and had a first- hand account with what was occurring. At this point in time there would be no reason why she would have to avoid telling the truth because Ireland was a free, independent republic and there was no more intimidation of the British or British soldiers. She did not have to fear being caught or getting in trouble with what she saw, it was actually encouraged by the Gaelic revival league. They believed that it would help people understand and appreciate Gaelic culture if the people of Ireland, and around the world, understand that there was a time when it was taken away from them. The purpose of this oral history was to show the world that the British stole from the Irish and there is a chance that she may be encouraged to embellish her memories of the invasion and the rebellion. Beattie did not just flat out lie but she definitely would have colored her testimony against the British.

There were very few people who decided to speak out about what they experienced so that we as historians could look back on what the British stole from the Irish when they invaded. It would be interesting to look at other oral histories from others who were living through the invasion and the rebellion to see what was occurring in their area of Ireland. As well as to see what the people in the United kingdom, Britain and Scotland, thought about what they were doing to Ireland or if there were any journals from soldiers like we have from the American Civil War. There could be a debate on how reliable this source is because she would most likely have a biased view on what occurred because she saw the down side of all that happened and she was rather upset, rightfully so, about what was occurring in Ireland. If there were documents examined from a British point of view, it would be helpful because it would show the parts that line up on both points of view would be more prominent and help with almost evening out the bias views from both sides of what occurred in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Oral History, Mary Beattie

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: October 28, 2014, 2:40 am | No Comments »

There is not much evidence that is exactly from the time period of the invasion of Britain into Ireland and the revolution of Ireland against Britain, there is however evidence from of the time period that was produced after the fact. This is because if a soldier found any evidence, such as a journal or any writing it was burned or somehow destroyed. So we do not have many primary sources available, but after the Republic of Ireland was official free some people started to speak about what was happening because this is still a time when not many people were literate, so they could not write about what happened. But, there still were so many who were too ashamed to speak about what they went through and what they saw. There are many brave souls, such as, Mary Beattie who told about what she went through as a child of the occupation and what she saw in her hometown in Ireland during the revolution.

The thought provoking oral history provided by Mary Beattie, a child of the British invasion of Ireland and a daughter of the revolution. Beattie thinks back to the time when dancing and anything to do with Gaelic culture was banned in Ireland. She tells what they did as children to find ways around the ban of dancing. But she also addresses other topics that came along with the invasion/ occupation of Ireland by the British and United Kingdom, such as. Food rationing and dealing with the poverty of the time period. The author’s (speaker in this case) point of view is on the side that would feel some form of hatred or angry because their culture and lifestyle was stolen away from them by the British. It is suggested that she was almost reminiscing about what life was like, but not necessarily because when one reminisces it is usually on something positive, she was thinking back to a time in her life that was dark and that she was not happy about or what seemed for her and anyone else that was living through that time period, was proud to say that they were there to be occupied by Britain.

This oral history was created to see the side of what happened during the time of the invasion, after the invasion and rebellion were over because everything from the time was burned or destroyed so there is no Irish evidence of what was truly happening. The purpose was to see what happened from the perspective of an Irish person who lived through the time of struggle and a ban on their culture. She might not be completely telling us what she saw or share all things she saw, it would be believed from what we know on biased stories or documents that it is typical that only certain things are added to make their point more significant or that their side would seem more right. This oral history would most like be considered to be a qualitative analysis over a quantitative analysis because it right from her telling us what she was experiencing and seeing as a child, and she explains what rights were taken away from her as child living in Ireland during this time period. This is also one individuals interpretation of what was happening to her and her family as well as what she saw her neighbors were experiencing and how it affect them.

This purpose and author of this oral history relate to the event/ phenomenon that occurred in Ireland because her whole childhood was consumed and stolen away because the British invaded and the Irish rebelled. Her knowledge of the phenomenon/ event occurring is more reliable than a secondary source because she was there and had a first- hand account with what was occurring. At this point in time there would be no reason why she would have to avoid telling the truth because Ireland was a free, independent republic and there was no more intimidation of the British or British soldiers. She did not have to fear being caught or getting in trouble with what she saw, it was actually encouraged by the Gaelic revival league. They believed that it would help people understand and appreciate Gaelic culture if the people of Ireland, and around the world, understand that there was a time when it was taken away from them.

It would be interesting to look at other oral histories from others who were living through the invasion and the rebellion to see what was occurring in their area of Ireland. As well as to see what the people in the United kingdom, Britain and Scotland, thought about what they were doing to Ireland or if there were any journals from soldiers like we have from the American Civil War. There could be a debate on how reliable this source is because she would most likely have a biased view on what occurred because she saw the down side of all that happened and she was rather upset, rightfully so, about what was occurring in Ireland. If there were documents examined from a British point of view, it would be helpful because it would show the parts that line up on both points of view would be more prominent and help with almost evening out the bias views from both sides of what occurred in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Oral History, Mary Beattie

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: October 14, 2014, 2:04 am | 4 Comments »

Thesis question:

How did Britain’s invasion into Ireland spark Irish Dancing’s its globalization and form the way modern traditional Irish Dance is now?

Thesis statement:

Britain’s invasion of Ireland sparked rebellion against the British government and the globalization of Ireland’s dance style.

Preliminary annotated bibliography:

Monographs:

A Brief History of Irish Dance by Mark Howard and the Trinity Booster Club

The ancient dances of Ireland were not recorded due to Britain’s invasion of Ireland and the Penal laws that were in place in the 16th century, they banned all forms of Gaelic cultural traditions. The tradition, that is widely known about Irish dancing that there is a stiff upper body and that is so that the dancing would not be seen by the guards passing by if they were dancing behind a door in which only the top portion opened up. After the Penal Laws were lifted in the 1800’s the Great Gaelic Revival began Irish dancing gained movement.

Step Dancing in Ireland: Culture and History by Dr. Catherine E Foley

The book is about the development of modern Irish dance and the relationship that has with the rebellion and its historical context. It talks about how it is a powerful tool of embodiment. It covers how Irish step dancing is shaped by the changing notion of cultural and identity.

Did your mother come from Ireland? By Clive Barnes

This article in Dance Magazine by Clive Barnes covers the topics that most scholarly articles cover such as, the Gaelic league and the British Invasion. But, this article adds in the performance aspect that made Irish well-known to most of the world and that is through Riverdance and Lord of the Dance and how that had an effect on the globalization and the growing popularity of competitive and performance Irish Dance around the world.

Historiographical Sources:

Dance and the Politics of Orality: A Study of the Irish “Scoil Rince” by Moe Meyer

                According to this the Gaelic League, who were basically in charge of the Great Gaelic revival, started the competitive or large group gathering and dancing as a form of income and to draw crowds. They wanted to draw crowds to show the cultural significance, because during the British invasion they lost forty percent of the population and a majority of the country lost their native language, Gaelic, and started speaking English as a primary language. On top of the reasoning for the meeting of the dancing the article discusses at the regional gatherings, Oireachtas, but also the different parts or versions of the dancing done while there, soft and hard shoe.

Critical Nostalgia and Material Culture in Northern Ireland by Ray Cashman

This reading is discussing the way that nostalgia is important when studying the past and a different culture. This is because nostalgia brings up the central ideas of tradition, identity, and one’s heritage.

“Strictly Irish Dancing” by TV3

The main topic in this documentary is the build up to the World Championship and following specific dancers on their journey, but along the way they brought in Historians and people who specialize in Irish dance to tell about the reason the Irish dancers look the way they look and dance the way that they dance. The topic of globalization is recognized and the fact that Irish dancing does not just occur where there are Irish people living or where there is English spoken.

Primary Sources:

Oral History, Mary Beattie

She talks about her childhood and what she remembers of it. She remembers meeting up with people and dancing in their houses behind their half doors, as well as poverty and their food rationing.

Interview with Jill Van Dreese

Interview is yet to come. She was born and lived in Ireland as a child and owns and founded her Irish Dance academy in De Pere, Wisconsin.

Scholarly Sources:

Protestant interests? The 1641 rebellion and state formation in early modern Ireland by John Gibney

This scholarly source is Historical research based on the Irish Rebellion against Ireland and how

it helped to form, what we know as the culture of modern Ireland. The article does so by examining different roles of the rebellion and those who formed different aspects for the revival. As well as taking a look at the punitive laws the British had on the Irish Roman-Catholics.

Ethnochoreology as a Mediating Perspective in Irish Dance Studies by Catherine E Foley, University of Limerick

The article in the New Hibernia Peer-Reviewed Journal by Catherine E Foley goes over Irish dancing in the Style of Sean Nós dancing, old style. As well as the academic study of dance within the context of Irish culture and as an important human activity whether that anywhere from socialization to competition and all in between. The article also covers the loose topic of what the phrase “Irish Dance” means.

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: September 30, 2014, 3:55 am | No Comments »

15  Sep
What is History

History, the chaos that we chose to study for a living, the crazy concepts we try to wrap our minds around. But to understand what we are trying to wrap our brains around for a living, is to truly understand what history is. History is the study of past events, as well as the things taught in a classroom that are portrayed as the only parts of history, and that it is and argument with out and end.

History as simply put as possible and in the most generic sense is the study of past events. But these past events are typically dealing with human affairs because that is what we know how to communicate. It is also an account of the past. This account of the past uses evidentiary support similar to that of scientist do a science experiment. But the difference of history compared to a science experiment is that our evidentiary support is skewed because of human perspective and not completely seeing all sides of what happened at the event in time. (Galgano) (Stanford History Education Group)

Only certain parts of history are being taught in a classroom, is what Aubrey Maran believes, as well as that the only parts of history taught are the ones that can be turned into anecdotes that are entertaining. In another area of my studies, we are discussing rock and roll, which is not a typical historical topic covered in the classroom because most historians believe that there is no underlying topics that go along with everything that encompasses history. But there are so many things that go along rock and roll and the reason for its growth to fame and why many of the musicians chose that genre. But yet it isn’t taught because people usually don’t associate the possibility of anecdote being able to connect to rock and roll.

“History is an argument without end.” (Pieter Geyl) Pieter Geyl is a Dutch historian. The interpretation that seems most suited is that he means, is that history is ongoing we keep adding to history on a day to day basis and we learn more and get different perspectives. It is also growing because we learn more about the past with the new technology available to us to interpret the past events.

History can be best understood or is known as the study of past events. Also as Audrey Maran thinks that History is what can be taught in a classroom and what can be used in an anecdote. Then there is the Dutch Historian, Pieter Geyl, thinks that history is an argument that does not have an end to it, so it is an ongoing and ever changing series of events and growing knowledge.

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: September 15, 2014, 1:17 am | No Comments »

08  Sep
Hello world!

Welcome to Blogs.uww.edu. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start blogging!

Posted by Marissa Schroeder, filed under Uncategorized. Date: September 8, 2014, 12:53 pm | 1 Comment »