Module 3

 

According to Woolfolk (2014) behaviorist perspectives of learning are “explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in observable behaviors” (p. 272). In other words something happens to someone, they are affected by it and it alters the way they act. Woolfolk (2014) explains the learning can be “deliberate or unintentional” (p. 272). Woolfolk (2014) states it focuses on “change must be brought about by experience” (p. 272). An example we talked about in class was Pavlov’s experiment with dogs ending up salivating when a bell rang due to classical conditioning. Behavior perspectives focus on conditioning, association, reward and punishment.

According to Woolfolk (2014) cognitive perspectives of learning are “a general approach that view learning as an active mental process of acquiring, remembering and using knowledge” (p. 312).   Woolfolk (2014) furthers cognitive perspectives deal with “mental processes” and “humans are active information processors” (p. 312). An experiment that we talked about in class was with the Bobo doll where children who observed an adult being rough with the doll were more likely to model that behavior.

According to Woolfolk (2014) the main difference between these two perspectives is they disagree on “what is learned” (p. 312). Woolfolk (2014) expands on this with behaviorist perspectives learning can be “passively influenced” by outside experiences where in the cognitive perspectives learning is “active” in what they take in to learn (p. 312).

According to Woolfolk (2014) Bandura saw the limitations of the behaviorist perspectives as underdeveloped and lack of input from social influences (p. 440). Woolfolk (2014) furthers with a limitation of cognitive learning is students can learn better in certain ways than others and what might benefit one student will not help another (p. 144). As a future educator I think it is important to have options for students and alter the way I teach to best benefit all students and see what works best for each student. According to Evans, Cools, and Charlesworth (2010) it is significant for teachers “to consider how they can use styles research in an expansive” not “restrictive” method and put “into account a number of interrelated areas that impact an individual’s access to learning” (p. 468).

From the table on page 468, I lean more towards cognitive views of learning because it was beneficial to me as a student. As an art teacher I will have to teach skills in ways of creating things such as pottery. In ceramics there are series of steps to follow and specific tasks to do within each step, such as making a tumbler. This will be more of students having to observe and mimic steps. I can’t really just engrain things by telling. I will need to show art theories to what is aesthetically pleasing when it comes to form, composition and guide them to industry standards/norms. I want my students to actually comprehend the course material, not to just memorize things and just think about a reward whether that’s a grade or candy given out. Another view of learning, Constructivist is more challenged based which will fit well into an art class because this view challenges thinking to innovation and greater understanding of fundamentals. This is done through peer and teacher art class critiques instead of just receiving a grade.

 

Sources

Evans, C., Cools, E., & Charlesworth, Z. M. (2010). Learning in higher education –        how cognitive and learning styles matter. Teaching In Higher Education, 15(4),      467-478. doi:10.1080/13562517.2010.493353

Woolfolk, A. E. (2014). Educational Psychology: Active Learning Edition (12th ed.).     Boston: Pearson.

 

Module 2

In class we learned four models of development from Piaget, Vygotsky, Bronfenbrenner and Erikson. According to Woolfolk, (2014) one develops and constructs knowledge through “physical,” “personal,” “social” and “cognitive development” (p. 46). Woolfolk (2014) continues with that these areas of development entail “changes in the body,” alterations in “an individual’s personality,” modifications “in the way an individual relates to others” and “changes in thinking” (p. 46).

From our class, according to Piaget there are four stages of development: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete-operational stage and formal-operational stage. For Piaget’s model, the strengths that we learned in class are that the stages of learning are inexact and not concrete, but they are consistent in development. The limitations are that the stages are very broad and not detailed or specific.

According to Woolfolk (2014) Vygotsky’s key factors in cognitive development are language and “interactions with others” and an emphasis on culture (p. 68). The strengths to Vygotsky’s theory according to Woolfolk (2014) are “highlighting the role of culture and social processes” (p.68). According to Woolfolk (2014) the prominent weakness to Vygotsky’s theory is the lack of detail and specifics to the theory; it is generalized notions (p.68).   Vygotsky’s theory impacts my future teaching by the possibility of having students work in groups to communicate as well as having in-class discussions/critiques of artwork. I will also give student art projects possibly just out of their reach using Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in order to grow and expand their skills for creating different types of art.

Woolfolk (2014) describes the significance of “context,” “the total situation that surrounds and interacts with an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and actions to shape development and learning” that pertains to Bronfenbrenner’s “Bioecological model” (p. 86). The model shows how relationships and areas of someone’s life interact and affect one another. I will think about this model as a teacher because I believe it is important to realize there are many factors in a student’s life that is beyond their control such as family life and poverty.

Poverty negatively affects a student’s development and learning in many ways. According to Votruba-Drzal, Miller & Coley (2016) “Poverty is associated with children’s early skills” in America “poverty-related disparities in cognitive skill emerge in infancy” (p. 4.) Votruba-Drzal et al. (2016) furthers with “poverty affects key proximal contexts and processes experienced by children and families which in turn affect children” (p. 4). An example Votruba-Drzal et al. (2016) writes is less “language stimulation” happens from “parents, books and toys” (p. 4). According to Kulkarni (2012) poverty can limit the attention a parent is able to give their child due to outside factors such as state of mind, unable to afford a residence or healthy foods, and working multiple jobs. This can affect cognitive development in the adolescent because they need the relationship with the parent (Kulkarni 2016).

According to Woolfolk, Erikson’s theory “emphasizes the emergence of the self, the search for identity, the individual’s relationships with others and the role of culture throughout life” (p. 99).  Erikson’s model has multiple steps in development in age groups. This will impact my future teaching. Ideally I would like to teach high school students who will likely be in the stage of Identity vs. Role Confusion. High school is a time where students are figuring out who they are and I think art class is a great way to express themselves through conceptual art and subjects that are important to them as well has creating enigmatic artworks that pertain to their ideas about themselves and the world around them.

 

References

Kulkarni, Chaya (2012, October 19). Poverty and brain development        [Video            file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6i105vkXVok

Votruba-Drzal, E., Miller, P., & Coley, R. L. (2016). Poverty, urbanicity,        and                 children’s  development of early academic skills. Child Development                           Perspectives, 10(1),  3-9. doi:10.1111/cdep.12152

Woolfolk, A. E. (2014). Educational psychology: active learning edition (12th ed.).        Boston: Pearson.

Module 1

The relationship between research and teaching in education is collaboration. Pete (2008) states, “research informs practice and policy in the teaching and learning” (para 4). As we discussed in class, researchers can interview teachers. Teachers can read research and can implement the information into their classes. Teachers can also study their own classrooms and use their findings to improve learning. Pete (2008) wrote, “Research should and does influence teaching (and vice versa)” (para. 1).

I can use information literacy by finding research and examining what is important to help in the classroom. In my future career as an educator I will use research to help improve my teaching and find the best ways for learning. I will use information literacy to best distinguish the way to improve my classroom.

I will be certified in teaching art K-12.   I plan on teaching at the high school level. I think homework can be beneficial, but should be limited. I don’t think assigning daily homework is necessary for art because most classes will be workdays for projects with demonstrations throughout the corresponding units. I rarely ever received homework in my high school art classes and most likely will follow a similar plan.

Homework can be beneficial. Xu (2005) found in a survey that roughly “three quarters of the students agreed or strongly agreed that doing homework helped them” (p. 50). Xu (2005) also found that homework was beneficial as a strengthening tool for what they learned in class, “study skills” and “responsibility” (p. 50).  Shumow, Schmidt, & Kackar (2008) found that “motivational aspects of homework experiences such as interest control, and enjoyment were positively related to self esteem” (p. 20). However, Shumow et al. (2008) found that while students see homework as bad they still learn the material (p. 23).

While homework can be beneficial there are consequences from it as well.   According to Galloway, Conner, & Pope (2013) when students completed their homework they “experienced greater behavioral engagement in school but also more academic stress, physical health problems, and lack of balance in their lives” (p. 490). Ohanian (2007) states that teachers might be assigning too much “when the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) finds it necessary to issue guidelines on recommended weights of book bags” (p. 41). Galloway et al. (2013) found that “many students in these upper middle class schools describe schoolwork as dominating their day” (p. 491). Galloway, K., & Pope (2007) found that students with more than a few hours of homework each day led them to “drop out of an activity because of the stress” (p. 28). Galloway et al. (2007) stated “when students spend 6 or 7 hours in school and another 3 or more hours on homework, they face a longer workday than most adults” (p. 29). Galloway et. al. (2007) conclude that there needs to be “a more balance workload” (p. 30).

As a future art teacher I want to make sure my students are learning the concepts, content, and skills in the curriculum. I do value the importance of having a well-rounded life. From the research I know homework can be beneficial to supporting the material learned in class, but too much homework can be unfortunate for student health. I plan to keep in mind the best interests of my students when it comes to learning and making sure that when I do assign homework it is beneficial, a small amount and relevant.

                                                            References

Galloway, M., Conner, J., & Pope, D. (2013). Nonacademic effects of homework in              privileged, high-performing high schools. Journal Of Experimental                              Education, 81(4), 490-510. doi:10.1080/00220973.2012.745469

Galloway, M. K., & Pope, D. (2007). Hazardous homework?. Encounter, 20(4), 25               31.

Ohanian, S. (2007). The homework revolution. Encounter, 20(4), 40-43.

Pete. (2008). “Understanding the relationship between research and teaching.”                 Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org/cee/positions/researchandteaching

Shumow, L., Schmidt, J. A., & Kackar, H. (2008). Adolescents’ experience doing                   homework: associations among context, quality of experience, and                           outcomes. School Community Journal, 18(2), 9-27.

Xu, J. (2005). Purposes for doing homework reported by middle and high school               students. Journal Of Educational Research, 99(1), 46-55.                                                 doi:10.3200/JOER.99.1.46-55.

 

Introduction

Currently, I am a student at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater pursuing my post baccalaureate degree in Art Education. The age group of students I would prefer to teach is high school. I have a B.A. in Communication Arts: Radio, TV & Film from UW-Madison. My dual degrees will help me teach students not only interested in fine art areas, but media and graphic design as well. I hope to incorporate my field experience from film sets into the classroom with group activities and exercises.
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My high school English teacher was my most influential educator. His teaching style was interactive and he conveyed the course content into actual life situations and possibilities. He had students look at novels, films, and articles through multiple perspectives creating possibilities for new ideas. I was inspired by his class to go into the arts. From my English teacher and class I saw the type of teacher I hope to become, a teacher who not only knows the subject, but has a passion for it that can translate into everyday situations.

blogpic3A good teacher should have many qualities such as listening, professionalism, empathy and patience as we discussed in class; however, I feel the most important ones are clarity, knowledge, passion, and ethics. Woolfolk (2014) states a good teacher has the following “characteristics” when teaching “clarity, warmth, and knowledge” (p.560). According to Woolfolk (2014) “clarity was the most promising” for student learning (560). Woolfolk (2014) elaborates on successful teachers as having “pedagogical content knowledge” and being “reflective” (p. 560). Fraser (2016) expresses pedagogical content with high importance,knowing a subject is essential, but knowing how to communicate that subject to sometimes fidgety young children or bored adolescents is also essential” (p. 31). Another aspect of a good teacher is ethics.   Fraser (2016) states “teachers need to be deeply ethical professionals who reflect their ethical commitment to their students in the way they do their work” (p. 32). According to Foley (2016) “effective teachers are passionate about educating students,” he continues with the notion that teachers need to regulate their classrooms by being in control of them (para. 1).

In comparing the two video clips, the first video clip from Dead Poets Society seems more effective because the teacher is keeping his students engaged, seems to have knowledge on the subject of poetry, along with excitement. He is interacting with his students while the economics teacher does not show interest and is not engaging his students. He repeatedly asks for anybody to respond while no one answers and appears to be indifferent to it. He keeps on going with the students not paying attention.

In my future role as a teacher I hope to be more like the teacher in the Dead Poets Society clip. My goal is to engage my students in learning with clarity, knowledge, excitement and professionalism.

References

Foley, D. (n.d.). 6 Classroom Management Tips Every Teacher Can Use. Retrieved        from http://www.nea.org/tools/51721.htm

Fraser, James W. (2016). Teach: A Question of Teaching (2nd ed.). New York:                  Routledge.

Woolfolk, A. E. (2014).  Educational Psychology: Active Learning Edition (12th ed.).      Boston: Pearson.