English 362: Ch. 6 Verbs & Jackie Chan, I Guess

Forms of Verbs

  • Non-tensed
    1. Base form —————- take
    2. -ing form —————– taking
    3.  -en form —————– taken
  • Tensed
    1. General present ——– take
    2. -s present —————- takes
    3. Past tense —————- took


  • Progressive
    • Action is ongoing or was ongoing
    • Form of be + -ing form of next verb to the right
      • Forms of be: be, is, are, am, was, were
      • Example: Jackie Chan is starring in a new movie.
  • Perfect
    • Suggests action is terminal
    • Form of have + -en form of next verb to the right
      • Forms of have: have, has, had
      • Example: Jackie Chan has stolen Olivia’s heart.
  • Both Perfect and Progressive Aspects
    • Sentences can have both aspects
    • Form of have + been + -ing form of next verb to the right
      • Example: Olivia has been picking some crazy blog post themes.

All Together Now

  • Sentences can have multiple auxiliaries before reaching the lexical verb. All auxiliaries must follow this pattern:
    • Modal – Perfect – Progressive – Lexical Verb
  • Tense must be carried on the leftmost verb.
    • Examples:
      • She has been acting strange.  –> Has carries the tense, so this sentence is present tense.
      • We were going there next. –> Were carries the tense, so this sentence is past tense.
    • Most modals cannot carry tense. Here are examples of ones that can.
      • She used to come here. –> Used to is what’s known as a generic past.
      • She is going to exercise later. –> Going to is known as prospective tense.
      • More examples and explanations can be found on Pg. 107 of your book.


English 362: Object Sentence Patterns! (ft. Jackie Chan)

Whasup Pwips! S-V-DO, S-V-IO-DO, and S-V-DO-OC are three of our sentence patterns. Let’s take a closer look at the components of each one.

  1. S-V-DO

This sentence pattern consists of a subject, verb, and direct object.

  • Direct Object: a noun phrase that is the target of the verb


Jackie Chan flawlessly performed a flip-kick.

In order to help you determine the DO (which is the target noun phrase of the verb) ask “who?” or “what?” of the verb. In this sentence you could ask “Jackie Chan performed what?”, and the answer is “a flip-kick”.


2.   S-V-IO-DO

The components of this sentence pattern are Subject, Verb, Indirect Object, and Direct Object. The IO and DO are two separate noun phrases. The IO is the recipient of the DO. In most cases, the IO is a human recipient.


Jackie Chan gave the villain a knuckle sandwich.

In this sentence, we identify the DO by finding the target of the verb “gave” which is the noun phrase “a knuckle sandwich”. We find the IO by locating the recipient of that knuckle sandwich, which is the second noun phrase “the villain”.

3.   S-V-DO-OC

The components of this sentence pattern are Subject, Verb, Direct Object, and Object Complement. An Object Complement (OC) is usually a noun phrase, but it can also occur as an adjectival phrase. An OC complements the DO. (Remember that a complement is an element that “completes” or extends the sense of another element in a construction.)

Example 1:

My little brother named Jackie Chan the greatest martial artist.

The DO is “Jackie Chan” and the OC that complements that DO is the noun phrase “the greatest martial artist”.

Example 2:

The rigorous training made Jackie Chan strong.

In this sentence the DO is once again “Jackie Chan”, but the OC is the AdjPhr “strong” that complements “Jackie Chan”.

English 362: Super Subject Complements

Heyo pwips, let’s talk subject complements!

Subject Complements

  • Function label
  • Follow a linking verb
    • Forms of be: is, am, are, was, were
    • Other verbs: seems, become, turned
  • Are a part of the predicate, S-V-SC
  • Can be a noun phrase or an adjective phrase


Wonder Woman is strong.

  • NP – Wonder Woman – Subject
  • Linking Verb – Is
  • Adjective Phrase – Strong – SC

Harley Quinn seems evil.

  • NP – Harley Quinn – Subject
  • Linking Verb – seems
  • Adjective Phrase – evil – SC

Starfire has become Queen of Tamaran.

  • NP – Starfire – Subject
  • Linking Verb – become
  • Noun Phrase – Queen of Tamaran – SC

Precore and Postcore and Batman!

Way to go Pwips! You made it through chapters 3 & 4 and an introduction to the noun phrase and sentence types. In the upcoming chapter 5, we will dive into the predicate phrase and certain phrases that are not a part of the core sentence.

Here is an introduction to those certain phrases—

  • First of all, we need to define what the core sentence is:

– The subject and the predicate of a simple declarative sentence are the core of the sentence.

  • For example:

Batman is the best superhero of all time!

“Batman” is the subject of the sentence, and “is the best superhero of all time” is the predicate. These two components always make up the core sentence.

Various kinds of phrases can be added at the beginning or end of the core sentence. These phrases are referred to as precore and postcore phrases and have different forms and functions. They add circumstances or comments about the core.

The first kind of these phrases is a precore phrase:

  • Pre-Adjuncts: These precore phrases frame the core sentence by telling us a circumstance that is true of the entire sentence. They tell the attitude of the writer toward the sentence or tell the reader what the next topic of the text will be.
    • For example:

In my opinion, Batman is the best superhero of all time.

First you identify the core of the sentence, which is the subject and predicate phrases “Batman is the best superhero of all time”.

“In my opinion” is a prepositional phrase that is functioning as a pre-adjunct. It is not part of the subject, nor is it part of the predicate since it doesn’t say something about the subject “Batman”. Instead it presents a circumstance that comments on, or provides a setting for the whole sentence. In this case, “in my opinion” tells us the writer’s attitude to the sentence.

  • Adverbials: Another type of phrase that can be precore; the term adverbial refers to the function of this type of phrase. Adverbials come in various forms such as noun phrases, simple adverbs, or prepositional phrases. Adverbials express a time at which an action takes place, where the action occurs, or the manner in which an action was carried out.
  • For example:

In a somber tone of voice, Alfred said that some men just want to watch the world burn.

The adverbial “in a somber tone of voice” is a prepositional phrase that expresses the manner in which Alfred is speaking.

Every day the Joker acts like a dog chasing cars.

“Every day” is the adverbial with the form of NP, and it establishes when the action takes place.

In the hospital, Harvey Dent received a surprise visit from the Joker.

The adverbial “In the hospital” describes where the action is taking place.

Post Core Phrases:

Sometimes pre-adjuncts occur at the end of the core sentence, in which case they are called Post-Adjuncts. Post adjuncts function in the same ways as pre-adjuncts.

  • Example:

Ironman is not as epic as Batman, with all due respect.

The post-core phrase “with all due respect” shows the attitude of the writer just as a pre-adjunct would.

Here is an example of a Post-core Adverbial:

  • Example:

Batman leapt into the Batmobile in great haste.

“In great haste” is an adverbial expressing the manner in which the action is taking place.



English 362: Ch. 3 & 4 Quiz Review

Quiz 2 is next Monday-are you ready? Here’s a quick review of what you need to know.

Ch. 3: Diagrams

  • Every diagram should have a subject and a predicate
  • The word that is the head of the phrase always has the same function as the entire phrase
  • A reminder about the different abbreviations used in diagrams is on page 45
  • Learn the definitions of nodes, and what it means to “dominate” and “immediately dominate” on page 50

Ch. 4: Sentences and Their Parts

  • Declarative statements: Subject-Verb
  • Imperatives: Bare Verb, no Subject
  • Interrogatives: Inversion of Auxiliary Verb and Subject
  • Hortatives: “Let’s” or “Let us”
  • Exclamatives and precatives: “How sweet” or “Lord help us”
  • Verbless Interrogatives: No Verb, “How about a piece?”
  • Fragments: Missing a Subject or Verb

Remember to check out our other posts for more information about these topics, and to come into Laurentide for any additional help. Good luck!

English 362: More from Chapter 4: Ellipsis

In addition to the sentence types we are learning about, Chapter 4 introduces the term ellipsis.

Ellipsis: refers to the omission of a word or words that can be supplied.

Although ellipsis rarely occurs in simple declarative sentences, they are much more likely to appear in more complex sentences.

Example 1–

  • The ninja latched his grappling hook onto the window sill, hauled himself up, and entered the Hokage’s private office.

There are three verbs in this sentence (latched, hauled, and entered) assigned to only one subject (The ninja). Intuitively, we know that the all the verbs are predicating “the ninja”, and it is not necessary to include “the ninja” before each verb. That omission is an example of an ellipsis.

Example 2–

  • Merry and Pippin stole, unwrapped, and launched the fireworks.

Here “Merry and Pippin” and “the fireworks”  undergo ellipsis. There is no need to say “Merry and Pippin stole the fireworks, Merry and Pippen unwrapped the fireworks, and Merry and Pippin launched the fireworks.”

Ellipsis in Imperatives

The understood subject or addressee of imperative sentences can also be seen as an instance of ellipsis.


  • Give me my precious!

instead of….

  • (You) give me my precious!

-The understood subject of “you” is the instance of ellipsis


English 362: Types of Sentences

Most of the sentences you will be dealing with in English 362 are declarative sentences (and why the function on your diagrams for the whole sentence is simply “Declaration”). However, it is important to distinguish the other types of sentences too!

Declarative Statements

  • Clear subject and predicate
  • Make assertions about everyday affairs
  • Do not:
    • Ask questions
    • Give commands
    • Express desires
  • Example: It is windy today.



  • Has “understood subject,” so subject is not clearly visible
    • Example: Stop running!
  • The word “you” may be to show emphasis, more of an addressee than a subject
    • Example: You stop running!
  • Often will have an exclamation point
  • Prohibitions:
    • Negative of imperative
    • Example: Don’t burn that!



  • Asks a question
  • Two types
    • Closed Interrogatives: a question that can be answered with yes or no
      • Has inversion, where the subject swaps place with a part of the predicate, often an auxiliary verb
      • Example: Can you write that? vs. You can write that
    • Open Interrogatives: a question that cannot be answered with yes or no
      • Centers around words like who, what, where, when, why, and how at the beginning of the sentence
      • Example: Where are you going?


Sentence Fragments

  • Is missing a part of sentence structure
  • Is not an imperative or other type of sentence
  • Example: About eight.


Exclamative and Precative Sentences

  • Exclamative
    • Dramatic expression of surprise or desire
    • Example: What luck!
  • Precative
    • Similar to exclamative, but has ceremonial, proverbial, or ritual contexts
    • Example: Lord help me!


  • Begin with “Let’s” or “Let us”
  • Example: Let’s go!

English 362: Glorious Diagrams!

Hello PWP students!

We’ve reached chapter 3 in Hopper’s textbook and been introduced to the basics of the great emblem of this grammar course, the Diagram. In addition to being a main focal point in the class, diagrams can be extremely confusing!

Here is a recap on important basics to understanding diagrams:

First of all, remember the definition of phrase. This is important since it’s phrases that we will be diagramming.

Phrase: this term refers to a set of words that belong together because they function as a grammatical unit (eg., “the hot rod” is the unit of a noun phrase)

In a diagram, a phrase has two aspects that are identified: Form and Function (hence, it is called a “form-function diagram”)

Forms: labels for categories like “verb”, “noun”, “adjective”; and labels for phrases like “Noun Phrase” and “Predicate Phrase”

-Forms are represented in the top “tree” part of the diagram

Functions: (what the phrase is doing in the sentence, or the purpose that it serves) labels such as “Subject”, “Predicate”, “Modifier”, “Determiner”, etc.

-Functions are represented in the underlined section of the diagram, underneath the sentence.

Every sentence that we will be working with is made up of two basic phrases: The Noun Phrase (NP) and the Predicate Phrase (PredPhr).  When you diagram a sentence, after you start the tree diagram by labeling the sentence with the overarching “S” form label,  the NP and PredPhr are the first two phrases that you will identify. Identify their forms (NP and PredPhr), and then identify their functions (Subject and Predicate). (See p. 48 of Hopper’s textbook)

Example Sentence:

The hot rod whizzed down the street.

   Two basic phrases of sentence:

“The hot rod” And “whizzed down the street”

   – Forms:

“the hot rod” = NP

“whizzed down the street” = PredPhr


     NP function (the hot rod) = Subject

PredPhr function (whizzed down the street) = Predicate


See chapter 3 for visuals of this diagramming process. Understanding the basic form-function categories of NP and PredPhr is just the beginning before we dissect each of those phrases down to every single word’s form and function. Keep up the good practice! If you have any questions or simply want someone to practice with, please stop by Laurentide and see either Cheyenne or Olivia (that’s me:)

About PWP Mentors

Welcome Professional Writing students! Both Olivia and Cheyenne (that’s us!) are here to help you with your courses and succeed in your chosen field. For those in:

  • English 230 Foundations of Writing and Editing
  • English 362 Grammar of Standard Written English
  • English 364 Style: Principles and Practices

We are available for tutoring and study groups. Just drop by Laurentide 3rd floor with any questions!


Times we are available:

Monday: 2:00-6:00 (230 & 362)

Tuesday: 4:00-6:00 (230, 362, & 364)

Wednesday: 2:00-6:00 (230 & 362, 364 from 4:00-6:00)

Thursday: 4:00-6:00 (230, 362, & 364)

Friday: 12:00-2:00 (230, 362, & 364)