The Jewish State (Draft)

Michael Novak

History 200

Dr. Patterson

12/8/14

The Jewish State

The Jewish people have seen more than their shared of persecution and genocide many times over since being massacred by the Romans in Jerusalem around 70CE.  Even before the events of the holocaust, The Jewish people longed for a place to not be afraid to be who they are.  The Jews had experienced every type of persecution from being forced into slavery by the Muslims in Spain to the forced baptisms and gruesome tortures dealt by the Spanish kingdom under the catholic King Ferdinand during the Spanish Inquisition.  Being forcibly dispersed to different regions of the world caused the Jewish population to be stuck in a circle of poverty and servitude having to live while conforming under the control of whomever controlled the land.  This caused the Jewish people to ask why they don’t have a homeland for themselves creating the idea of Zionism.  The idea of Zionism is a movement for the re-establishment, the development, and protection of a Jewish nation.  This movement gave the Jews hope of one day finding a place for themselves, Israel.

The land now known as Israel has gone through difficult and sometimes deadly turmoil.  With the history of the Jewish people being filled with pain and evidence of multiple reports of expulsion, there was finally a need for a homeland to be created.  United States and the United Nation intervention started to increase the strength of support for the Jewish people giving the Israeli government the ability to use their military power to take Palestinian lands.  The Jewish people have suffered from bias everywhere they have tried to settle making them more aggressive in their immigration against the Palestinians forcing them to leave their homes.  The Palestinian people looked at this invasion as another imperialist power trying to take control of them creating a deep hatred for the idea of Jewish immigration into their land.  The culture of the Jewish people with the idea of Zionism started a movement of creating a powerful Jewish majority in the land they desperately want.  The Ben Gurion government with the United States and western countries justified the Palestinian resettlement in 1948 due to specific political agendas, religious biases, and the idea of  zionism.

Jewish life beginning in Israel has been recorded in different pieces of religious texts like the Torah and the Bible.  Many Jewish people believe that god had promised the land to them and they deserve to be the one inhabiting the area.  Around the year 70 CE, the Roman Catholics invaded Jerusalem destroying most of the city and massacring thousands of Jewish people and sold the survivors into slavery.  With the Jewish people gone it left the land open for the Byzantine Empire to control the land until the conquest of Rashidun Caliph Umar I took the land from Byzantine control.  Jerusalem remained under Muslim control until the crusades began.  While the Muslims were fighting with the Byzantines and other resistances, some of the Jewish people were living under Muslim control in Spain.  The Muslim’s protected the Jewish people ,they too believed in the writings given to them by god, as long as they lived as second class citizens to them.  Under Muslim control, the Jewish people were given the opportunity to get ahead instead of being at the bottom of the social ladder.  As Michael Cohen states in his article Jews, Muslims and the Myth of the Interfaith Utopia, “…By the high Middle Ages Jews were considered ‘serfs of the royal chamber, ” The special “ property’ of monarchs or barons or towns. Sometimes the Church asserted exclusive power over the Jews”.  The Jewish people have risen in the social hierarchy becoming tax collectors and financial counselors giving them power above being a slave, which they came as originally.  Under relative peace with the Muslims and the Jews in Spain, the Spanish Kingdom had been gaining land throughout Europe spreading christianity and moved to try and wipe put the Jews in 1391 by the leadership of Ferrand Martinez increasing the hatred of the Jews so much that the people in the towns began to support him in the murders, forced and brutal baptisms, and expulsion of most of the Jews from their homes in Spain.  Then again on March 31, 1492 the Spanish King Ferdinand and the Queen Isabella declared an Edict of Expulsion to essentially expel any Jew from inside the Spanish Kingdom that didn’t convert to christianity.  King Ferdinand saw Judaism as corrupting the souls of Christians and he felt they needed to conform or die.  After The Spanish Inquisition, The Jewish people scattered to find protection from the Catholics where they stayed in relative safety besides some residual antisemitism that followed them everywhere until after World War II when the need for a homeland became essential to the survival if the Jewish people.  The Jewish people undoubtedly followed their faith, sometimes outside of their control and for their safety, anywhere they felt they could avoid oppression.  This actualized the legitimate reasoning for the creation of Israel in the land they once lived and were forcibly removed from.

There was an idea that the land fought over between the Palestinians and Jews could be divided into a two state solution.  The Balfour Declaration of 1917 gave the Jews the right to immigrate into the land known as Palestine as a new homeland for the Jewish people.  This caused an influx of immigrants into that area.  The British had promised to support and help the Palestinians protect their land, but when the British government saw a way for support of the Jewish people leading to a victory for the Allies against the Axes powers Britain did what was best for itself over the Arabs.  Leaving the Palestinians defenseless, the Jews came in with their military and support of the United States to take control of the land they wanted.  There was a need for the heterogeneity between the two different types of people for the two state solution to work, but the Jewish people were not interested in sharing the land and becoming second class citizens again.   The idea of Zionism came into effect in the idea of creating a homogeneity society among the residents of Israel making the Jews the majority and dominant power driving the Palestinians from their homeland to make everyone follow the ways of the Jewish majority.  As Dr. John Docker believes in: The Two-State Solution and Partition: World History Perspective on Palestine and India, “…I would date it from 1492, in the expulsion of the Sephardic Jews and the final defeat of Muslim Spain at Granada that seek a unity of ethnos, religion, and values”.  Dr. John Docker sees that if the two-state solution were to become homogenous it would resemble the Spanish Inquisition as King Ferdinand wanted everyone under his rule and to follow whatever he believed.  The Jewish people, who were brutalized by this, seemed to like that way of set up making them in power.  Both Palestinian and Jews believed that they deserved to live their as their homeland.  It is difficult to determine who has the right to live there if the Jews feel that god had promised them Israel and the Palestinians who already inhabited the area for generations.

The Jewish forces came in and took the land they wanted from the Palestinian people declaring it is their home.  The Israeli forces neutralized any sort of defenses that the Palestinians had to conquer and annex most of the region into Jewish control.  The Israeli forces made easy work to control most of the land held by the Arabs being underestimated from the beginning by the Palestinians.  From an Arab perspective this invasion is seen as a complete domination by the Jewish people supported by two super powers in the world, the United Staes and the Soviet Union.  Many Palestinian Arabs were forced to leave their homes and move into different regions that were under Arab control.  The population influx of Jewish people into Israel began to grow compared to the dropping Palestinian presence creating more tension with the Palestinians calling for the reduction of immigration visas allowed into their country.  The Jews came in with their military against the Palestinian forces that relied on British support which was more interested in their own political agenda after World War II.  With the limited support of Britain, being pressured to accept the immigrating Jewish people into Palestine, the Palestinians felt they had no choice but to leave to escape the Jewish idea of Zionism taking control of the majority.  With the rise of Zionism making the idea of a powerful Jewish state possible in the newly conquered areas, the Arabs felt pressure from the new waves of Jewish immigrants taking the support they needed to control their homeland resulting in the mass exodus of the Palestinian Arabs out of Israel to escape the idea of a dominant Jewish state.

The decision to create a homeland for the Jewish people has been highly debated for many years.  Between the already settled Palestinian Arabs that have lived in Israel and the Jewish people who believe god gave them Israel, the idea of a two state solution would not be easy to accomplish.  With the two state solution it would create a split for the newly immigrating Jewish people and the existing Arab population in Israel already.  Both sides of the arguing parties would need to be able to split the land and the economic environment evenly, but there were so many Jewish immigrants coming to the state that it overwhelmed the Arab population taking the majority of the Palestinians.  This immigration of the Jewish people caused the governments to take care of the refugees creating even more unrest forcing the Arabs to deal with the new immigrants struggling to survive relying on government intervention.  The Palestinians felt helpless after their ally, Britain who was also being pulled in Israel’s direction, turned their back on them they felt they had no other choice but to surrender to the Israelis.  The Israeli people felt they had the right to take the land from the Palestinians making the two-state solution not feasible in this situation.

The United States was reluctant to establish a secure homeland inside the U.S making a stronger claim for a homeland in the Middle East.  The United States greatly supported the Israeli military in the seizure of land from Palestinian control.  The President of the United States, Harry Truman, wrote a letter to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom with a report he had conducted on the lives of the Jewish population after the tragic events of the Holocaust and World War II.  Harry Truman tried persuading Clement Attlee in a personal letter to support the increase of immigrants allowed into Palestine to protect the Jews by saying, “…I concur in the belief that no other single matter is so important for those who have known the horrors of concentration camps for over a decade as is the future of immigration possibilities into Palestine. The number of such persons who wish immigration to Palestine or who would qualify for admission there is, unfortunately, no longer as large as it was before the Nazis began their extermination program”.  Harry Truman draws attention to how the Jewish population was treated by the Axis powers such as Germany and the Nazis.  Harry Truman uses a sympathetic approach to feel how the Jews were treated as well as the actual evidence that Earl G. Harrison, the United States Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, and the Representative on the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, found when he went to visit the refugee camps for the displaced people from World War II.  Earl G. Harrison conducted his report on the conditions being extremely bad stating:

What is more unfortunate, to draw comparisons between their treatment “under the Germans” and “in liberation”,[and] they have witnessed great activity and efficiency in returning people to their homes but they hear or see nothing in the way of plans for them and consequently they wonder and frequently ask what “liberation” means.

Earl G. Harrison sees when he visits the refugee camps for the displaced people of World War II, the conditions are really no better than they were in the concentration camps without the fear of torture or death by gas chamber.  The governments around the areas of refugee camps did little to help as the refugees fight to stay alive on minuscule rations of black coffee and burnt bread, ill-prepared housing to handle the winter, and the lack of clothing to clothe themselves other than their death camp outfits and old SS uniforms.  With the support from the United Sates putting pressure on the Allied powers, the Israeli army, made up of Jewish people that avoided the concentration camps and the refugee camps, fought with the Palestinians for control over the main cities in Israel.  Many believed that the Arabs in Palestine would actually defeat the Jewish immigrants just like the Central Intelligence Agency reported: “ Given the lineup, given the well known Arab facility for warfare and mayhem, the United States would be plain foolish to back the Jews-not that there was any reason to do so.  The Arabs had the numbers, the choice of location, and, of course, all that oil.  The CIA kissed off Israel”.  With the lack of confidence from most countries in Israel defeating the Arabs, the western countries felt they didn’t need to help the Arabs with what they thought would be an easy victory for them.  The Jewish military did have support from some countries like the Soviet Union, which was short lived, and the United States which made getting whatever the Jews needed easily to fight the Arabs.  Richard Cohen states in his book, Israel: Is It Good for the Jews? “The Jews had no population advantage and no tactical advantage-such as a better knowledge of the land or control of the high ground-although they did have more at stake, since they were either fighting for their lives or thought they were.  In the end desperation and knowhow made all the difference”.  Even though the Jewish people were undervalued by the other countries, their will to create a homeland that they can live in freely greatly outweighed the idea of losing to the Arabs.

With the idea of trying to create a Zionist party to lead the Jewish people to power and freedom in their own homeland, the main focus was not just to take away all the land from the Palestinian Arabs.  The Jewish people were willing to take less land, as long as they had enough to comfortably live, as long as they had control over their own land.  In the beginning of the talks for a partition between the Palestinians and Jewish land, the Zionist didn’t have much power or support behind them so the Zionists leaned heavily on British support and action to help further the Jewish state.  The idea of Partitioning the land between the Arabs and the Jews came from the British government causing a lot of turmoil as well as a need for compromise on the amount of land that would go to each group of people and where they would be located.  The partition meetings between the different sides of the argument were not always filled with tension, the Zionist party was willing to work with Britain and the other countries in the League of Nations to find a suitable place to create Israel instead of fighting as stated by Itzhak Galnoor: “Although the 1919 map was based on several internal drafts, its preparation was not accompanied by a heated debate within the Zionist movement about territory versus other considerations”.  The Zionist movement coinciding with the British Mandate was willing to accept less land than the lad it hoped for by stating, “The 1919 map presented the Zionist territorial aspirations, but it already included a “partition element”, a pragmatic willingness to weigh non-territorial goals, and the political constraints of that time. The territory; claimed was smaller than the definition of the “Land of Israel in its natural’ boundaries”.  The Zionists that were fighting for their chance at a homeland were willing to give up land they could use as long as they are able to be free and govern themselves.  The idea of Zionism has a negative connotation among most people in the Middle East in the ways the Jews are willing to do whatever needs to be done to advance their own agenda, but they are the extremists that are willing to what is necessary for themselves as their own country and secure their future as a homeland.

The Jewish people have gone through more than most can imagine starting from the years of slavery and servitude under Muslim and Catholic rule to dealing with the effects of a post-World War II environment trying to establish a secure environment.  The Jews have been resilient bouncing back from everything history has thrown at them while they remain pushing towards the goal of a Jewish state.  With the Palestinian people claiming their own historical ties to the land, it created more obstacles that they needed to overcome.  The outnumbered and undervalued Jewish people, with the support of the world’s super powers, encouraged the idea of Zionism and the ability it had to rally the Jewish fighters in a collective movement against the Arabs.  The United States along with Britain and the United Kingdom came together to use the Israeli Palestinian conflict as a way to establish relations with the Middle East using it as a way to take the possibility from their adversaries who could use it against them in future conflicts by means of land position and oil resources.  Also stemming from generations of religious persecution, the creation of Israel finally gave the Jewish population a place to live in general peace not worrying about another group coming to force them out.  The Ben Gurion government of Israel with the backing and support of western countries was able to justify the resettlement of the Palestinian Arabs due to long standing religious biases and persecution, political agendas resulting from the end of World War II, and the overpowering ideal of Zionism giving the Jewish people a chance at a homeland.

 

 

 

Bibliography

Martin Gilbert, Israel (Great Britain: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1998), 3-186.

 

“Historical Background 70 Ce-1917,” Israel and Judaism Studies, accessed December 8, 2014, http://www.ijs.org.au/Historical-Background/default.aspx.

 

Cohen, Michael. “Jews, Muslims and the Myth of the Interfaith Utopia.” Qantara.de. November 19, 2007. file:///Users/mishanovak/Library/Application%20Support/Zotero/Profiles/dh18bl86.default/zotero/storage/JECX28M5/al-andalus-jews-muslims-and-the-myth-of-the-interfaith-utopia.html.

 

Docker, John. “THE TWO-STATE SOLUTION AND PARTITION: WORLD HISTORY PERSPECTIVES ON PALESTINE AND INDIA.” Two-State solution for Palestine and Israel, Sydney, Australia, 2010. Accessed December 9, 2014. http://libproxy.uww.edu:5209/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=48d3f411-03b3-468b-8933-7842abedffe3%40sessionmgr4002&vid=1&hid=4109.

 

Truman, Harry. “188 Letter to Prime Minister Attlee Concerning the Need for Resettlement of Jewish Refugees in Palestine. November 13, 1945.” Letter from Harry Truman to Clement Attlee.

 

Harrison, Earl G. “Jewish Displaced Person Project.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (1945): 1. Accessed December 9, 2014. http://www.ushmm.org/exhibition/displaced-persons/resourc1.htm.

 

Galnoor, Itzhak. “The Zionist Debates On Partition (1919-1947).” Accessed December 9, 2014. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/30245854?uid=3739976&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21105414559833.

Michael Novak

History 200

Dr. Patterson

11/24/14

Outline

Thesis Question: How did the early Ben Gurion government justify the resettlement of the Palestinian people in 1948?

 

  1. Introduction: The land now known as Israel has gone through difficult and sometimes deadly turmoil.  With the history of the Jewish people being filled with pain and multiple reports of expulsion, there was finally a need for a homeland to be created.  United States and the United Nation intervention started to increase the strength of support for the jewish people giving the Israeli government the ability to use their military to take Palestinian lands.  The Jewish people have suffered from bias everywhere they have tried to settle making them more aggressive against the Palestinian Arabs forcing them to leave their homes.  The Palestinian people looked at this sort of invasion as another imperialist country trying to take control of them creating a deep hatred from their past as well.  The culture of the Jewish people with the idea of Zionism started a movement of creating a jewish majority in the land they desperately want.  The Ben Gurion government with the United States and western countries justified the Palestinian resettlement in 1948 due to specific political agendas, religious biases, and apartheid zionism.
  2. Historical Context
  1. Blog Assignment

III. Historiography

A.   Blog Assignment

IV. Body #1

A.   The Jewish population has suffered greatly from the Spanish kingdom trying to force Christianity upon them causing them to leave looking for a safe homeland.

B. Evidence/Facts

1. Primary Source: Document from King Ferdinand to expel al Jews from Spanish     kingdom.

2. Persecution of Jewish people through history mainly 13th century

3. Orthodox Zionism (definition/examples)

C. Insight

1. Explain why the Jews were kicked out of the Spanish kingdom

2. Work off historical context

D. Transition

IV. Body #2

A. The United States and The United Nations supported the Israeli military the seizure of           land from Palestinian control.

B. Evidence/Facts

1. The U.N and U.S put pressure on Britain to withdraw support from Palestine

2. Primary source: Harry Truman’s letter to Prime Minister Clement Attlee

3. Secondary Source: Report of Jewish life in their respective home countries and refugee     camps after World War II

C. Insight

1. Explain why the U.S and U.N supported Israel

2. Taking of Nazareth

D. Transition

IV. Body #3

A. (Culture of the Palestinian and Israeli people over the two-state argument)

B. Evidence/Facts

1. Secondary Source: Population and immigration influx from before and after WWII

2. Zionism v.s two-state argument (Emphasize zionism for religious safety and     secularism)

C. Explain why the two-state argument couldn’t work with Zionism

D. Transition

IV. Body #4

A. Apartheid Zionism (Hafrada)/ Why it was necessary for the jewish population

B. Evidence/Facts

1. Taking of Nazareth

2. Power struggle between Israel and Palestine

C. Insight

1. Moral conflicts

2. Explain Palestinian reaction

D. Transition

V. Conclusion

Blog #5

Michael Novak

History 200

Dr. Patterson

11/10/14

Historiographical Blog

The conflict between the Palestinian and Israeli people has been argued between many different types of groups.  There has been much debate on who has the right to live there and who can take it from the other.  Although Israel has gone through much turmoil in their past, they came out with the intention of taking control of Israel from the Palestinian people who have been living there for generations.  While the Palestinians already lived there for many years, there has been much debate on creating a two state solution or the right that Israel had to come take the land from the Palestinians.  The Israeli people look at the land that the Palestinians live on as rightfully theirs as it was promised to them by god, but the Palestinians agree that they have lived there for many generations and they do not see the reason they need to give up their land.

First, there was an idea that the land fought over between the Palestinians and Jews could be divided into a two state solution.  The Balfour Declaration of 1917 gave the Jews would be given the right to immigrate into the land owned by the Palestinian people.    The British had promised to support and help the Palestinians protect their land, but when they came under pressure from the UN the British turned their back on them.  Leaving the Palestinians defenseless, the Jews came in with their armies and support of the United Nations to take control of the land they wanted.  There was a need for the heterogeneity between the two different types of people for the two state solution to work, but the Jewish people were not interested in sharing the land and becoming second class citizens again.   The idea of Zionism came into effect to create a homogeneity among the residents of Israel making the Jews the majority and dominant power driving the Palestinians from their homeland.  Both Palestinian and Jews believed that they deserved to live their as their homeland.  It is difficult to determine who has the right to live their if the Jews feel that god had promised them Israel and the Palestinians who already inhabited the area.

The Jewish forces came in and took the land they wanted from the Palestinian people declaring it is their home.  The Israeli forces neutralized any sort of defenses that the Palestinians had with minimal casualties to conquer and annex most of the region into Jewish control.  The Israeli forces made easy work to control most of the land help by the Arabs.  From an Arab perspective this invasion is seen as a complete domination taking control of many key cities rapidly and with minimal deaths.  Many Palestinian Arabs were forced to leave their homes and move into different regions that were under Arab control.  The Israelis came in with their advanced army against the weaker Palestinian forces that relied on British support which wasn’t there when they needed them.  With the rise of Zionism making the idea of a powerful Jewish state possible in the newly conquered areas, the Arabs felt a lot of pressure from the new immigrants to make them leave the homelands resulting in the mass exodus of the Palestinian people.

The decision to create a homeland for the Jewish people has been highly debated for many years.  Between the already settled Palestinian Arabs that have lived in Israel and the Jewish people who believe god gave them Israel, the idea of a two state solution would not be easy to accomplish.  With the two state idea it would create a split for the newly immigrating Jewish people and the existing Arab population in Israel already.  Both sides of the arguing parties would need to be able to split the land and the economic environment evenly, but there were so many Jewish immigrants coming to the state that it overwhelmed the Arab population.  The overcrowding created an unbalance in the population numbers making the power mainly with the Jewish side who had high population numbers.  This mass invasion of the Jewish people caused the overcrowding and even more unrest that the Arabs felt they had no choice but to go.  In other cities the Israeli forces came in and they took control of everything to do with their lives to create an opportunity for the Jewish people to settle there.  The Palestinians felt helpless after their ally, Britain, turned their back on them they felt they had no other choice but to surrender to the Israelis.

The Israeli people felt they had the right to take the land from the Palestinians.  With the support from the United Nations the battered race of Jewish people were able to create a home state.  Although there were Palestinians that were already living there, they were invaded and forced to leave their homes to make room for the Israelis.  The mass exodus of the Arab people was forced into effect because the Jews wanted to have the majority when so many Jews were immigrating to that area that the Arabs couldn’t live in peace so they left. The Palestinian people believed just as much as the Jewish people did that the land was meant to be theres.  The argument of who’s land it really is has taken on different understandings, but by the Israeli forces seizing these lands it destroyed any hope for a two state system.

Blog #4

Michael Novak

History 200

Dr. Patterson

10/27/14

Blog #3

Harry S. Truman wrote to Clement Attlee, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, pleading for his support with the decision for Israel to become a state.  He sent along to the Prime Minister a report Earl G. Harrison conducted on the needs and problems of Jewish refugees.  Earl Harrison was formerly the United States Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and then the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees.  Harry S. Truman along with Mr. Harrison worked to created this report to help the displaced jewish refugees after World War II.  Truman felt it was his obligation and duty as a person in power to help the Jews who were brutalized by the Nazis.  Truman wanted to try and help grant immigration to as many Jews as needed to get away from their home countries in which they were persecuted in.  Even after the concentration camps the jews were forced to live in camps with people who had been displaced from the war.  Most of the displaced people of World War II shared the same outlook of antisemitism towards the jews that were held by the nazis.  This created a never ending cycle of suffering for the jews.  This letter to the Prime Minister is a plea from one man to another in order to help the cause that Harry S. Truman believes in by helping the suffering jewish people.  This report gave facts that Truman wanted to use for support from an allied country of the United States in hopes that they would agree with creating Israel.  Aside from ignoring the Palestinians who were already there, Truman pushes to increase the amount of refugees allowed to immigrate to Israel to escape persecution.  With this letter to Clement Attlee, Harry Truman used his own research to prove the Jews deserved a place to stay.

What Truman believed caused bias towards the creation of Israel as a homeland for the Jews.  Truman tries to persuade Clement Attlee with the report from Earl Harrison from the actual jewish people that were being effected to look past the Palestinian people and their outcries and instead look at what the jews had to deal with.  From the letter it seems as if Harry Truman is over looking the Palestinian people because of what he thought should be done for the refugees.  World War II created a bias for Harry Truman also showing him the horrendous actions the Nazis did to the jews and in turn caused him to create a bias for the jewish people into doing everything in his power to create a homeland to call their own.  This primary source has qualitative and quantitative aspects to analyze and understand the point of view Harry Truman is coming from. With his research from Earl Harrison he built a case on making Israel a homeland for the jewish refugees.  He mainly stayed political, but it states, “I know you are in agreement on the proposition that future peace in Europe depends in large measure upon our finding sound solutions of problems confronting the displaced and formerly persecuted groups of people. No claim is more meritorious than that of the groups who for so many years have known persecution and enslavement”.  Harry Truman sees the jewish people as a group that has come under tremendous struggle throughout their existence and he wants to stop the suffering even if it means displacing another group of people.

Harry Truman as the President of the United States addresses Clement Attlee as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in an attempt to persuade him to see his side of the debate on if Israel should become a home for the jewish people.  He believed in this cause so much he felt the need to write a personal letter to the Prime Minister with a report of jewish life after World War II to try and convince him to support the jewish people.  Harry Truman was the President at that time, so he would receive all the information from that part of the world.  He would be a reliable source with all the information he would have received from his staff and advisors on how to deal with this situation.  This source is a letter from the President of the United States to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom as a way to show his side of the debate on creating a homeland for the jewish refugees.  Harry Truman was using the report that he sent to the Prime Minister to support his cause in creating Israel so he wouldn’t be able to avoid telling the truth.

This primary source is reliable for my research because it is a letter written from Harry Truman to Clement Attlee explaining how he had a report done on the jewish refugees along with army zones to see the different sides of the argument and his hopes to have the Prime Minister join his cause.  I would like to still find the report that Earl Harrison made for Harry Truman and see the facts that the President used to create his support for the creation of Israel.  I feel this source would show a lot of information of the state of being a refugee after dealing with the concentration camps with no homeland to go back to.  Another source like this for the opposition of the creation of Israel would be a good source so I can see other arguments.  This would give more background on the life of an arab in Palestine dealing with the mass immigration of the jewish people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Harrison, Earl G. “Pages from Earl G. Harrison’s Notebook.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.

Working with Historical Data

Michael Novak

History 200

Dr. Patterson

10/1/14

Annotated Bibliography

 

Primary Source:

Truman, Harry S. “188 Letter to Prime Minister Attlee Concerning the Need for Resettlement of Jewish Refugees in Palestine.” American Reference Library (1945): n. pag. EBSCOhost. Web. 1 Oct. 2014. <http://libproxy.uww.edu:5209/ehost/detail/detail?sid=94fdc7e0-af8c-4554-8d48-259844d3e25f%40sessionmgr4004&vid=0&hid=4214&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWlwLHVpZCZzaXRlPWVob3N0LWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=khh&AN=32348824>.

 

Annotation: This document is the actual letter from Harry S. Truman to Prime Minister Attlee.  Its his plea to the Prime Minister to give the Israeli refugees after World War II.  He is trying to get across the idea of how unimaginable it would be to live in the concentration for so many years.  This is in a way the will of the american people who want the Israeli people to have a place to go safely after the atrocities that happened by the hand of the Nazis.  This information comes from the American Reference Library about something that happened with the American government.  It isn’t like the other sources I have in the view it has on the Jewish community instead of the poking at all the Palestinians during the exodus.  This source is useful to me because it shows me the view from a different aspect of another country not part of this conflict.  Also it is a primary source and this helps me get a feel of the tension and ties there were during this time.  It gives me another argument for the change in landscape that is Israel.  I know have the outlook that even though moving a massive population of arabs out of their country it gave a home to the refugees.

 

Scholarly Article:

Ravndal, Ellen Jenny. “Exit Britain: British Withdrawal From the Palestine Mandate in the Early Cold War, 1947–1948.” Diplomacy & Statecraft 21.3 (2010): 416-33. EBSCOhost. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <https://libproxy.uww.edu:9443/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=53779971&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

Annotation: In this scholarly article, Ellen Jenny Ravndal writes on the tension that Britain was under during the time of the Israeli-Palestine conflict.  This diplomatic choice made by the British had to deal with the thoughts of increasing or decreasing tension with the Cold War just beginning.  It was more for the appearance of Britain to other countries they had alliances with also.  While Palestine was fearing Soviet expansion into the country, Britain had its own economy to think about as well making the decision to withdraw from Palestine even harder.  The UN also had a say in what happened with Palestine but with it having to be a third party, the UN looked at the big picture of how this would affect the rest of the Middle East.  This source gives an insight of how the UN and a country that tried to help seat with their problems along with what was happening in Palestine.  This is helpful for me to understand the diplomatic twist and how politics play a huge role in every decision that is made.  It makes the way I think about this event in a more calculated mindset.  It makes more sense to look at the Middle East as a big picture when making these decisions because if you make one decision it can cause a chain reaction to something even worse.

 

Scholarly Article:

Galnoor, Itzhak. “Introduction The Zionist Debates on Partition (1919–1947).” Israel Studies 14.2 (2009): 72-87. EBSCOhost. Web. 23 Sept. 2014. <https://libproxy.uww.edu:9443/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=43171136&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

Annotation: Although it was Palestine at the time, Zionist also made decisions that impacted the resettlement in 1947.  The opinions of the jews that were being settled there also mattered to large scheme of decisions made.  There was an emotional side to the Zionist wanting to create a homeland for their people away from the fear of another country would come and exterminate them.  It shows how originally Britain had promised the Jews land where Palestine was located in 1919,1937, and finally 1947.  They even talk about trying to split the land for both to live in but the size of each was the main concern of would it be enough.  This would be a good source to use because it gives a Zionist point of view that the jews want a homeland they would be safe in away from all threats.  My arguments I feel would be strong because I have many different views on the same thought or actions taken place.  It differs from my other views because its the side of people for giving the jews a homeland for themselves and their culture.

 

Historiographical Source:

Rudnitzky, Arik. “The Contemporary Historiographical Debate in Israel on Government Policies on Arabs in Israel During the Military Administration Period (1948–1966).” Israel Studies 19.1 (2014): 24-47. EBSCOhost. Web. 1 Oct. 2014. <https://libproxy.uww.edu:9443/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=92691914&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

Annotation: This covers the debate may scholars had during the time of the original idea and how other historians are going back to discuss this again after the fact.  It looks at the changes in statehood and the problems they thought would happen and what actually happened.  This is looked at by historians debating the Zionist views from a political standpoint during the debate of dealing with the Arab minority left after the mass exodus.  I can use this article to show that even today we are deciding if the decision that was made was the right decision.  Especially with a military view it would tie in with all the turmoil that happened between Israel and Palestine.  This supports the diplomatic approach with this it gives more ideas that have come from over time to compare with the ways they thought then.

 

Historiographical Source:

Esber, Rosemarie M. “Rewriting The History of 1948: The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Question Revisited.” Holy Land Studies 4.1 (2005): 55-72. EBSCOhost. Web. 1 Oct. 2014. <https://libproxy.uww.edu:9443/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=18790783&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

Annotation: This piece looks at the historiographical context of the of the resettlement of the arabs.  It talks about the British influence with their decision to stop supporting Palestine and the British Mandate.  By having oral history documents in the article it shows a biases with interviewing refugees.  They analyze all of the historical context into two groups, Pro-Zionists and Pro-Palestine.  It separates the biases and also shows the interaction between the two groups.  Since there is still so much tension the government refuses to declassify some documents.  For my research it is difficult to avoid biases with this topic.  This article seems reliable because they are historians researching about a moment in history.  It shows me another way of going about the events that happened from other historians. This source seems pretty straight forward and not biased because they talk about getting past biases.

 

Historiographical Source:

Gelber, Yoav. “Israel’s Policy towards Its Arab Minority, 1947–1950.” Israel Affairs 19.1 (2013): 51-81. EBSCOhost. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <https://libproxy.uww.edu:9443/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=86010101&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

Annotation: This is a source of the actions that occurred in the daily lives of the members of the Israeli military during the time of the the war in 1948.  It takes the historian the ways they tried to solve the problem of the minorities of Arabs in Israel after the first war.  They definitely did not want another war and they tried ideas to make both sides but they found this was not feasible and someone would be upset.  It shows me that even if they tried all the ideas that would make people happy it wouldn’t have turned out successful.  This kind of source would be great to see how the past has influenced the future.  The information is great for deciding if the decisions made by the Israeli government worked out for them and if they could have decided differently.

 

Monograph:

Laqueur, Walter, and Barry Rubin. The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, Edited with and Introduction and Comments by Walter Laqueur. 3 Ed. Updated and Expanded. 4th ed. NewmYork: Bantam, 1976. Print.

 

Annotation: This book has documented everything that has to do with dealing with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.  It begins at the beginning with the early days of the Zionist movement and the call for the creation of the State of Israel in the early 1900s all the way up to in the 1980s after the area I will be covering.  The section I will be using is later around the time when the British gave up the mandate and stopped supporting Palestine and allowed the jewish people in.  This source is solely on the issue between israel and palestine.  It covers every aspect that had occurred on that land including the other countries that attempted to intervene.  This source is reliable because it is only on the one subject and it is unbiased when it covers both sides of the conflict.

 

Monograph:

Khalaf, Issa. Politics in Palestine: Arab Factionalism and Social Disintegration, 1939-1948. Albany: State U of New York, 1991. Print.

 

Annotation: This book I found for my sources covers a time during Arab revolt against the British occupiers and the Zionist conquest for the land that they believe is rightfully theirs.  There was a lot of tension between Palestine and the British because the British promised to support them through this conflict and then turned their back on them when they felt pressured.  It explains how pressured and attacked the Palestinians were and how they tried to deal with it without being weak or defenseless.  This source shows the Palestinian people felt and handle this situation of a forced exodus and war.  This is different from my other sources because my others usually were on the side of Israel or they are unbiased.  This one is biases on the side of the Palestinians because it shows you how they felt and what they did in this difficult period of uncertainty.

 

Monograph:

Harms, Gregory.  The Palestine Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction.  Ann Arbor, MI, 2005. Print.

 

Annotation: This source is a basic introduction on everything to do with the jews and palestinians through time.  This covers every major battle that happened with the catholics to what happened in the 1940s.  It is broad, but it covers the main points just enough to understand the basic reasoning behind why the events happened and why there is still hate in that region.  Its hard to find biases in this book because it is so broad and informational.  I can use this to understand some backstory that I miss with my other sources being specific.  Its smaller and more general than my other sources, but I look at this as a way to understand the broader idea.

Voices of the Past

Michael Novak

History 200

Dr. Patterson

10/13/14

Blog #3

Harry S. Truman wrote to Clement Attlee, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, pleading for his support with the decision for Israel to become a state.  He sent along to the Prime Minister a report Earl G. Harrison conducted on the needs and problems Jewish refugees.  Earl Harrison was formerly the United States Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and then the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees.  Harry S. Truman along with Mr. Harrison worked to created this report to help the displaced jewish refugees after World War II.  Truman feel is his obligation and duty as a person in power to help the Jews who were brutalized by the Nazis.  Truman wanted to try and help grant immigration to as many Jews as needed to get away from their home countries in which they were persecuted in.  This letter to the Prime Minister is a plea from one man to another in order to help the cause that Harry S. Truman believes in that he can help the suffering jewish people.  This report gave facts that Truman wanted to use for support from an allied country of the United States in hopes that they would agree with creating Israel.  Aside from ignoring the Palestinians who were already there, Truman pushes to increase the amount of refugees allowed to immigrate to Israel to escape persecution.

What Truman believed caused bias towards the creation of Israel as a homeland for the Jews.  Truman tries to persuade Clement Attlee with the report from Earl Harrison from the actual jewish people that were being effected to look past the Palestinian people and their outcries and instead look at what the jews had to deal with.  From the letter it seems as if Harry Truman is over looking the Palestinian people because of how he thought should be done for the refugees.  World War II created a bias for Harry Truman also showing him the horrendous thing the Nazis did to the jews and in turn caused him to create a bias for the jewish people doing everything in his power to create a homeland for them to call their own.  This primary source has qualitative and quantitative aspects to analyze and understand the point of view Harry Truman is coming from. With his research from Earl Harrison he built a case on making Israel a homeland for the jewish refugees.  He mainly stayed political, but it states, “I know you are in agreement on the proposition that future peace in Europe depends in large measure upon our finding sound solutions of problems confronting the displaced and formerly persecuted groups of people. No claim is more meritorious than that of the groups who for so many years have known persecution and enslavement”.  Harry Truman sees the jewish people as a group that has come under tremendous struggle throughout their existence and he wants to stop the suffering even if it means displacing another group of people.

Harry Truman as the President of the United States addresses Clement Attlee as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in an attempt to persuade him to see his side of the debate on if Israel should become a home for the jewish people.  He believed in this cause so much he felt the need to write a personal letter to the Prime Minister to try and convince him to support the jewish people.  Harry Truman was the President at that time, so he would receive all the information from that part of the world.  He would be a reliable source with all the information he would have received from his staff and advisors on how to deal with this situation.  This source is a letter from the President of the United States to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom as a way to show his side of the debate on creating a homeland for the jewish refugees.  Harry Truman was using the report that he sent to the Prime Minister to support his cause in creating Israel so he wouldn’t be able to avoid telling the truth.

This primary source is reliable for my research because it is a letter written from Harry Truman to Clement Attlee explaining how he had a report done on the jewish refugees along with army zones to see the different sides of the argument and his hopes to have the Prime Minister join his cause.  I would like to still find the report that Earl Harrison made for Harry Truman and see the facts that the President used to create his support for the creation of Israel.  I feel this source would show a lot of information of the state of being a refugee after dealing with the concentration camps with no homeland to go back to.  Another source like this for the opposition of the creation of Israel would be a good source so I can see other arguments.  This would give more background on the life of an arab in Palestine dealing with the mass immigration of the jewish people.

What is History?

Michael Novak

Historical Methods

Dr. Patterson

9/15/14

http://blogs.uww.edu/michaelnovak/

The Historian’s Craft

Studying history is vital to the evolution of mankind.  It is key to learning from the choices and sometimes mistakes made by previous generations.  It is hard sometimes to decipher

if the source is credible or not, but there isn’t a way to be sure.  With so many ways to look at and study history, debates on events can skew views of the past.  History is the collection of events from popular memory, Biases, and the point of view from the strong and powerful.

History provides an insight onto our own identity.  Sometimes the views that some have effect the way we study past conflicts and events unfortunately like with the holocaust.  Popular memory is the description of a certain moment of history that is told by one side that is usually the side that won.  With the holocaust we know what happened from the side of of the jewish people and the germans, but before the world realized what had happened the german nazis denied any idea of what the holocaust was or that it happened.  If the jewish people hadn’t spoken out that moment in history could have been forgotten forever.  It brings up the thought of what other horrific events went unnoticed because they were left out of records.  Popular memory has effected our past and if we learn from the mistakes we can stop this from ever happening again.

Biases have been effecting history throughout time making it difficult to truly understand what happened at certain events.  Biases can be traced even as far as the middle east when the Prophet Muhammad died.  With Muhammad’s last words being vague, it left room for biases and misinterpretations.  These biases caused a rift between the Sunni and Shi’ite people over the next true leader of Islam.  With the misinterpretations of the prophets last words it caused tension and and led to the Battle of Karbala.  With biases like this effecting how we study and learn from history we can only believe what the most credible source at the time believes depending on what side they are on.  A scholar can agree with the Sunni people and write off the Shi’ite people alter how we depict how they felt with the misinterpretation.

Point of view plays a vital role in how we look at history just like with biases and popular memory.  Depending on the point of views that the moment in history took place we can only see what the scholars at that time believed.  The point of view at that time can be completely different than what it would be today because there are so many changing factors.  With so many ways to look at history it can give an understanding to how people in different parts of the world viewed events and recorded them.  Compared to now there are so many points of view we can take from with social media and the various news outlets.  With point of view playing such a big part of what history is, it really comes down to who we trust with recording events for future generations.

With popular memory, various biases, and point of views, the way we study history has been flawed and obvious that we are missing many things from the past.  The strong control the way we record history because they are the survivors and are the ones creating these barriers to truly understand the past.  The mistakes made from past civilizations that we learn from shape the way we deal with different choices that come up.  Now that we can communicate so much easier than we used to be able to its much easier to make sure nobody will be forgotten.