The cognitive perspective focuses its attention on achievement of facts, concepts, skills, and strategies in order to succeed in learning. They believe that learning happens through applying strategies in effective ways. The behaviorist perspective focuses more on “acquisition of facts, skills, [and] concepts [that] occur through drill, guided practice” (Educational Psychology p. 468). It is important for us to apply these perspectives of learning to instruction in order to practice different theories and what works best. It is also important because these theories have been tested and proven to work while teaching children, although, all children learn differently. Applying both methods to your teaching will help you to find which strategy works best for different age groups and learning styles. Instructing these theories correctly will give you as a teacher a better understanding of the theory and also help the children to learn accurately. The limitations of the cognitive theory include that “behaviorists see this theory as weak due to the abstract nature of thoughts and the difficulty in defining them. What may be seen as self-critical by one researcher may look like a rational remark by another” (Heffner). Another limitation is that prior knowledge must be at hand in order to apply specific strategies. The behaviorist perspective limitation would be that there must be someone to guide the student in order for them to learn, and it is more teacher involvement. The transmission presentation technique is also used by behaviorist theorists which is more of telling rather than guiding students through teaching. Another weakness is that “many critics argue that behaviorism is a one-dimensional approach to understanding human behavior and that behavioral theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts and feelings” (Rhed). It is also said that the behavioral approach is limited to one type of learning and tends to be superficial. I agree more with the cognitive approach in terms of the role of the teacher, peers, and students. I will apply the things I have learned in this module by teaching my patients in speech pathology by guiding them and not just telling them while I am teaching them. I will also be sure to take into account teach and model effective strategies and ensuring that each patient has accurate and complete knowledge of the material. I will be sure to avoid keeping my work one sided and I will take into account of different factors in the children’s lives and home life.
Links to my websites: