Amphetamine Review Video

http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/stimulant-dependence-amphetamines-and-cocaine.html#lesson

This video is a final review on what amphetamines feel like and how difficult it can be to stop taking amphetamines after you become dependent on it. Amphetamines can be easy to become addicted to if you have a prescription and dependency can become a problem. Thank you for looking at my blog on Amphetamines!

Work Cited

Alter, C. (2013). Study: Fewer Workers Using Cocaine and Marijuana, But Prescription Drug Use Is Up. Time.Com, 1.

Amphetamines. Retrieved from http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/amphetamines.asp

Hodgkins, P., Shaw, M., McCarthy, S., & Sallee, F. R. (2012). The Pharmacology and Clinical Outcomes of Amphetamines to Treat ADHD. CNS Drugs, 26(3), 245-268

Steinkellner, T., Freissmuth, M., Sitte, H. H., & Montgomery, T. (2011). The ugly side of amphetamines: short- and long-term toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘Ecstasy’), methamphetamine and d-amphetamine. Biological Chemistry, 392(1/2), 103-115. doi:10.1515/BC.2011.016

(2014, June 3) Amphetamine Facts. Retrieved from http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/amphetamines

Amphetamines 3

My experience with amphetamines is Adderall. I have many friends who have taken Adderall and some that have prescriptions for Adderall. My friends that use Adderall are not addicted to it or abuse it in any ways. They use Adderall for studying or completing homework. Other amphetamines such as methamphetamine I have not had any personal experience with or know anyone who has tried methamphetamine. According to the Australia Drug Foundation website withdraw from amphetamines can be challenging because the body has gotten use to functioning on amphetamines. Withdraw symptoms will slow down in a week and within a month be completely gone. Some examples of withdraw symptoms would be cravings for amphetamines, increased appetite, confusion and irritability, aches and pains, exhaustion, restless sleep and nightmares, anxiety, depression and paranoia (druginfo.edu). The number one prevention in my personal opinion is to never try it.

http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/amphetamines

Amphetamines Part 2

Amphetamines are now used to treat Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Amphetamines affect the neurotransmitters in your brain by, “enhance synaptic levels of monoamines in the brain, which causes large and rapid increases in dopamine levels in the striatum and noradrenaline levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus” (Hodgkins 249). According to the Center for Abuse Substance Research the extra neurotransmitters will affect the user by making them feel mentally focused, increased ability to stay awake, and increased ability to focus. Amphetamines also have a rapid onset and its peak is approximately 30 minutes after of administration.  Since there are many forms of amphetamines, powder, tablets, capsules and crystals, there are many ways of administration. The only medical administration for amphetamines is orally. Recreational administration for amphetamines includes insufflation, injection, smoked and rectal insertion.

Amphetamine use and other prescription drugs have been detected more in the work place while marijuana and cocaine detection has fallen abruptly (Alter).  As mentioned previously a single dose of amphetamines will cause and individual to feel mentally focused, increased ability to stay awake and an increased ability to stay focused.  When looking at the chronic toxicity death can occur but is very rare for all amphetamines. Some symptoms for potential amphetamine toxicity include acute hyperthermia, hyponatramia (low sodium), cardiovascular collapse, and rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of muscle tissue). For most cases that involve amphetamine chronic toxicity, amphetamines was not the only drug involved (Steinkellner, Freissmuth, Sitte, Montgomery 106). The toxicity to humans is still very uncertain.

According to the Drug Enforcement Agency or DEA, amphetamines are a Scheduled II stimulant because of the high potential for abuse and limited medical use. Amphetamines are only available with a prescription and it can only be refilled after a certain period of time.  For individuals who do have a prescription for amphetamines should be monitored on how much they are taking at a time because it is a highly addictive drug. Jochen Wolffgramm and Andrea Heyne conducted a study on rats and the addiction to d-amphetamine. The V rats would have a choice between water or d-amphetamine solutions while the F rats would only have the d-amphetamine for 47 weeks. They started the rats on a high dose of d-amphetamines and lowered the dose after the first weeks, and then they kept the dosage the same for a while. Both sets of rats would not drink the d-amphetamine water excessively but would take about the same dose throughout the 47 weeks. After the 47 weeks the both rats received only tap water. Both rats had withdrawl symptoms which was evident through significant decrease in pain threshold during the first week. The rats also gained weight back because they started eating more. The conclusion was that the V rats and the F rats did not develop a drug addiction for the d-amphetamine water.

Topical Project Part 1

Amphetamines

Forms: powder, tablets, capsules or crystals

Sources: Active ingredient in herbs called ephedrine

History: Chinese medical tea from herbs was where ephedrine came from. It would dilate the bronchial passages in asthma patients. In the 1920s researchers synthesized and studied the effects of a new chemical that was similar to ephedrine and was patented as Amphetamine in 1932 (Book).

Drug misuse: The US is currently experiencing an outbreak of amphetamine abuse. According to the US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health the latest national surveys show that 3 million Americans use a type of amphetamine in the past year. Addiction rated doubled from 2002 to 2004 so amphetamine abuse is a relatively new phenomenon (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health).