Historiography Malcolm X

Malcolm X was a very vocal leader for African Americans, who did not see African Americans living under one constitution. He preached for complete segregation and basically forming a black society. Joining the Nation of Islam gave him the inspiration to preach to African American who believed they did not have any other choices in fighting discrimination. Malcolm X was considered a radical due to his methods with NOI, since violence was not out of the question[1]. There were many other African American leader that led movements towards equal rights for African Americans, Thurgood Marshall and more famously Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X believed in creating a segregated African American society while other non-violence leaders such as Thurgood Marshall believed in reaching equality through the law, but the mostly successful movement came through religion with Martin Luther King Jr.

 

Malcolm X’s criminal history discredited from many people because it showed that he did not always follow the law and resorted to violence. This is not a surprise since he did not believe in the US constitution[2]. He wanted to create a segregate African American. It is understandable to see why many African Americans did not support Malcolm, they believe in equality not segregation. Thurgood Marshall was an African American lawyer who won Brown vs. Board of Education, a case that made school give equal opportunities to students[3].  He discredited Malcolm X bye saying his is a “bum” and mentions his criminal history as a direct result of why he doesn’t listen to anything he says[4]. Martin Luther King was a minister for a Baptist Church therefore nowhere being afflicted with Malcolm or his method of fighting African American discrimination[5]. These two men where gaining more ground for African American rights than the violent method of Malcolm X and the NOI. If Malcolm X really did wanted to fight for African American rights he would change his method sooner rather than late in his life. Marshall argue that Malcolm was simply looking for fame and because he took the route that led to greater support, after realizing he would get larger support for a non-violent movement he converted to main stream Sunni Islam[6][7].

 

Thurgood Marshall was an lawyer who later became the first African American Supreme Court Justice in 1967 appointed by Lyndon Johnson. Thurgood believed in the constitution very much so and the amendments, this led to his believe that the law was the way to reach equality[8]. This goes against Malcolm X and the NOI. In face the two sides hated each other and were vocal about the matter. Malcolm X method of violence did not appeal to Thurgood, it is easy to see why this became a frustrating situation to Thurgood. He had shown that the law could work for African American because he had a very successful career as a lawyer fighting for African American rights. To have an individual try and start to use violence now after making large strides upset Marshall and he tried to discredit Malcolm with interviews on the matter. After Marshall won Brown vs. Board of Education it came a giant step toward gaining equal rights, he also won twenty-nine out thirty two cases for equal rights[9]. Thurgood Marshall showed that the law could be the most effective way of gaining rights and proved it was more progressive for equal rights to fight through the judicial system than joining radical movements such as the NOI.

 

As the most famous and successful Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King did not support Malcolm X and the NOI or their methods. Kings was not fighting for segregation but rather equality, as did Thurgood Marshall. He was a man of non-violence and spoke for the people in the South for the majority of his career. Kings marches and speech was what gained the most national attention and numbers. He shinned light on the issues that needed to be handled at a national level. He is a man that was known of achieving these accomplishments through non-violent protests. While Malcolm tried to rally people to fight the system through method Martin Luther King did not support in any way or form. The men differed on almost every issue besides ending discrimination. Kings accomplishments only added to Marshall’s idea that Malcolm only did what would bring him more fame. King arranged many marches that gained large national attention in the 1960s, and it was in the mid 1960s that Malcolm changed his views on Islam; which led to him changing his beliefs to non-violence and equality for all races. Martin Luther King’s success shows that Malcolm and NOI would only stay as a radical movement due their lack of progression in the legal system, and the right attention from the national stage.

 

Martin Luther King’s non-violent marches and preaching through religion gained the nations attention of the inequalities while Thurgood Marshall believed that the law was the best way to achieve equal rights for African Americans; both men disagreed completely with Malcolm X’s method and discredited the bad image they painted for non-violent protesters. Marshall and King had made great strides in Civil Rights movement, but having someone like Malcolm preaching violence was holding them back. Malcolm’s and the NOI views would be tools for media to use against non-violent protestors and would set them back.



[1] X, Malcom X.

[2] Ibid.

[3] “Thurgood Marshall – Biography – Civil Rights Activist, Lawyer, Supreme Court Justice, Judge.”

[4] Williams, Thurgood Marshall.

[5] Kelly and Cook, “Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X.”

[6] Williams, Thurgood Marshall.

[7] “Thurgood Marshall – Biography – Civil Rights Activist, Lawyer, Supreme Court Justice, Judge.”

[8] Williams, Thurgood Marshall.

[9] King, The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. / Edited by Clayborne Carson.

Revison

Drilon Grajcevci

History 200

Dr. Patterson

October 13, 2014

 

Malcolm X’s book The Auto Biography of Malcolm tells the story of a unique individual who is still debated today. This book can appeal to a wide verity of audiences due to the nature of it. You hear the struggles and daily battles of a man that lived through trying times for African Americans in the United States. As the book progresses to his later years it gets deeper. Malcolm X became a great speaker through the years, and we see this in his autobiography. While reading there are no biased opinions from an autobiography, therefore we know the entire context is accurately portrayed and historically correct since the information is coming from the source own sayings.

 

The greatest source available when searching for a primary source is having the story told in an autobiography by the individual that is being researched. It is a difficult task trying to express what sorts of opinions people had in the past. We tend to look at the problems those individuals faced in the past with a modern prospective. Easily leading to biased writing on historical events and interpretation of what really happened. By having a primary source it allows people to gain a certain understanding of the immediate problems facing Malcolm X. It does not allow you to speculate on what was the mindset at the moment. Many people have written about the civil rights movement and shared their opinions while never experiencing it for themselves. This book gives readers a primary source point of view from one of the most influential leaders. We see the struggles not only against white Americans, but the challenges in gaining public support from African Americans. Before reading this book I though Malcolm X was someone that knew what he wanted from the start, not knowing that he his stardom came from a man named Elijah Muhammad. He was Malcolm X’s mentor and would give him advice such as “go after the young people once you get them, the older ones will follow through shame.”[1] An author can’t distort this type of text that was directly said and influenced Malcolm X, because they are direct quotes from the leader. Only biased that can exists in this autobiography is that of Malcolm X’s towards issues he believes in.

 

Autobiographies are written so the story of that individual’s life can be told through that person views. Autobiographies are important for people like Malcolm X because they help clear up what he envisioned. He is widely debated in regards to the tactics he used to gain support. A source such as this does not leave any holes in an argument. All the evidence we need is available without any holes. One of his most famous speeches “By Any Means Necessary” was given in 1964. It’s a powerful speech, form the title alone it gives readers or listeners an idea of what he is trying to influence. People get a sense of fear thinking this man means that whatever stands in his way he will remove it by any means necessary just to get what he wants. After reading his autobiography we know that at this point in his life, his purpose was essentially the same but with a different method. He was growing weary of Nation of Islam which he had helped build. Malcolm had already made plans to leave and to visit the Middle East, and had already started referring to himself as Malik El-Shabazz.[2] We get a better insight of the qualitative data, since we see what Malcolm X’s emotions were before these speeches and what was the motivation behind such powerful speeches at the time.

 

The events in Malcolm X’s life are hard to track. One of the great things about a primary source like this is that you can follow his life chronologically. From the day he was born May 19th, 1925.[3] To the day he was assassinated on February 21st, 1965 in New York City.[4] This book is told like a story but it does not have the one draw back of getting the facts and words twisted. This source supplies the words of Malcolm X himself and not one of an author that listen and study his speeches and is interpreting it. Autobiographies are great source to get quantitative data.

An autobiography is the most creditable source available when researching the life of a certain individual; it cannot be biased since the context is from the person himself while its chronological order let the facts fall in the accurate timeline. Malcolm X was a very good entertainer; he knew what people wanted to hear. He could deliver his message very well. Through the years he grew as a leader and intellect. It import to understand that not everyone of his followers and listeners understood what Malcolm preach. He was a man that had passion and always went the distance to get his message across to people. He was responsible for gaining support from famous individuals, which helped The Nation of Islam gain recognition. Malcolm X was easily the biggest face of Nation of Islam.



[1] X, Malcom, 1925-1965. The Autobiography of MALCOM X. New York, United States: One World, 1999.

Page: 216

 

[2] , Malcom, 1925-1965. The Autobiography of MALCOM X. New York, United States: One World, 1999.

Page: 449

 

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

Malcolm X

Blog Assignment Three

Drilon Grajcevci

History 200

Dr. Patterson

October 13, 2014

 

The Auto Biography of Malcolm X is a book, which captures readers because it tells the story of a unique individual who is still debated today. This book can appeal to a wide verity of audiences due to the nature of it. You hear the struggles and daily battles of a man that lived through trying times for African Americans in the United States. As the book progresses to his later years it gets deeper. Malcolm X became a great speaker through the years, and we see this in his autobiography. While reading there are no biased opinions from an autobiography, therefore we know the entire context is accurately portrayed and historically correct since the information is coming from the source own sayings.

 

The greatest source available when searching for a primary source is having the story told in an autobiography by the individual that is being researched. It is a difficult task trying to express what sorts of opinions people had in the past. We tend to look at the problems those individuals faced in the past with a modern prospective. Easily leading to biased writing on historical events and interpretation of what really happened. By having a primary source it allows people to gain a certain understanding of the immediate problems being facing Malcolm X. It does not allow you to speculate on what was the mindset at the moment. Many people have written about the civil rights movement and shared their opinions while never experiencing it for themselves. This book gives readers a primary source point of view from one of the most influential leaders. We see the struggles not only against white Americans, but the challenges in gaining public support from African Americans. Before reading this book I though Malcolm X was someone that knew what he wanted from the start, not knowing that he his stardom came from a man named Elijah Muhammad. He was Malcolm X’s mentor and would give him advice such as “go after the young people once you get them, the older ones will follow through shame.”[1] An author can’t distort this type of text that was directly said and influenced Malcolm X, because they are direct quotes from the leader. Only biased that can exists in this autobiography is that of Malcolm X’s towards issues he believes in.

 

Autobiographies are written so the story of that individual’s life can be told through that person views. Autobiographies are important for people like Malcolm X because they help clear up what he envisioned. He is widely debated in regards to the tactics he used to gain support. A source such as this does not leave any holes in an argument. All the evidence we need is available without any holes. One of his most famous speeches “By Any Means Necessary” was given in 1964. It’s a powerful speech, form the title alone it gives readers or listeners an idea of what he is trying to influence. People get a sense of fear thinking this man means that whatever stands in his way he will remove it by any means necessary just to get what he wants. After reading his autobiography we know that at this point in his life, his purpose was essentially the same but with a different method. He was growing weary of Nation of Islam which he had helped build. Malcolm had already made plans to leave and to visit the Middle East, and had already started referring to himself as Malik El-Shabazz.[2] We get a better insight of the qualitative data, since we see what Malcolm X’s emotions were before these speeches and what was the motivation behind such powerful speeches at the time.

 

The events in Malcolm X’s life are hard to track. One of the great things about a primary source like this is that you can follow his life chronologically. From the day he was born May 19th, 1925.[3] To the day he was assassinated on February 21st, 1965 in New York City.[4] This book is told like a story but it does not have the one draw back of getting the facts and words twisted. This source supplies the words of Malcolm X himself and not one of an author that listen and study his speeches and is interpreting it. Autobiographies are great source to get quantitative data.

An autobiography is the most creditable source available when researching the life of a certain individual; it cannot be biased since the context is from the person himself while its chronological order let the facts fall in the accurate timeline. Malcolm X was a very good entertainer; he knew what people wanted to hear. He could deliver his message very well. Through the years he grew as a leader and intellect. It import to understand that not everyone of his followers and listeners understood what Malcolm preach. He was a man that had passion and always went the distance to get his message across to people. He was responsible for gaining support from famous individuals, which helped The Nation of Islam gain recognition. Malcolm X was easily the biggest face of Nation of Islam.



[1] X, Malcom, 1925-1965. The Autobiography of MALCOM X. New York, United States: One World, 1999.

Page: 216

 

[2] , Malcom, 1925-1965. The Autobiography of MALCOM X. New York, United States: One World, 1999.

Page: 449

 

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

Annotated Bibliography

Thesis Question: How did Malcolm X’s views on American society and culture change?

 

Thesis: Deciding to convert Sunni Islam forced Malcolm X to abandon Nation of Islam, which led to not longer fighting for his African American race but fighting to end racism

 

 

 

Barker, Cyril Josh, and Yacinf Simporé. “Malcolm X Day Celebrated Uptown.” New York Amsterdam News 103, no. 21 (May 2012): 3.

-It shows celebrations of what would have been Malcolm X’s birthday also ilustrating how he still affect cutral. Also showing how big his influence was on civil rights

 

Boyd, Herb. “Malcolm X and Human Rights.” Michigan Citizen (May 2012): A7–A7.

-This shows that inhuman things are still happening. With this article it really shows how far his influence went to be compared on something internationally.

El-Beshti, Bashir M. “The Semiotics of Salvation: Malcolm X and the Autobiographical Self.” The Journal of Negro History 82, no. 4 (October 1997): 359–367.

This is an opinion on the autobiography of Malcolm X. This is interesting because it evaluates and explains the progression Malcolm X had.

 

Horne, Gerald. “Myth‘ and the Making of ’Malcolm X.” The American Historical Review 98, no. 2 (April 1993): 440–450.

This article talks about the many assumptions made about Malcolm X. It a good article to really access the facts from the false. It will help form a factual argument

 

Laremont, Ricardo René. “Race, Islam, and Politics: Differing Visions Among Black American Muslims.” Journal of Islamic Studies 10, no. 1 (January 1999): 33–49.

NOI beliefs controdict what Islam stands for and this article shows what NOI preached. Helping explain why Malcolm had to leaves NOI so he came convert to mainstream Sunni.

 

Little, Malcom. Malcom X: Speeches and Interviews. Interview. Youtube, 1960. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9AmuYqjRyg.

This source has Malcolm giving speeches to crowds and media. Speeches of Malcolm gives great incite on what the mindset of the civil rights leader was.

 

Marable, Manning. A Life of Reinvention. London, England: Penguin Group, 2011.

This is a book on Malcolm X’s life from a professor of African American history at Columbia. Marable talks about the myths and the facts about Malcolm’s life. This book also includes information from organization like the FBI.  Manning shows that Malcolm was a great at performing to African Americans and giving speeches.

 

McLeod, Marian B. “The Speeches of Malcolm X.” Masterplots II: African American Literature, Revised Edition (December 2008): 1–4.

A summery and analysis of the speeches of Malcolm X. This source would be useful because we can see what African American women thought of the message that was trying to be passed.

 

Morrow, John Andrew. “Malcolm X and Mohammad Mehdi: The Shi’a Connection?” Journal of Shi’a Islamic Studies 5, no. 1 (January 2012): 5–24.

This article takes about the possibility that Malcolm X could have had a spirital guide during his Hajj from a Shiite. This is goes against popular believe because Malcolm converted to mainstream Sunni. This is a different idea of what happening being the so-called spiritual guide did make arrangements for Malcolm on this trip.

 

Ryan, Patrick J.1. “One Pilgrim’s Progress.” America 210, no. 15 (April 2014): 26–28.

This takes about the details of Malcolm and his Hajj. This source is more of a factual source giving factual information on his trip.

 

X, Malcom, 1925-1965. The Autobiography of MALCOM X. New York, United States: One World, 1999.

This is the best primary source to have since it is directly from Malcolm X. A autobiography gives you a chance to see what Malcolm saw and what he thought and mindset was at certain times. Helping explain the choices and decision he made.

Expository Essay Sample: What is History?

What is History?

Drilon Grajcevci

Historical Methods

Molly Patterson

Steptember 15th, 2014

 

 

As young students in elementary and middle schools we are told that everyday we live we are part of history. The actions of today will be taught to future generations. Students imagine future generations studying about their lives. Knowing that someone will be taught about our daily challenges and accomplishment gives students a sense of pride and fame. We fail to understand that future historians might not have a positive opinion of our current civilization. There will be, like there are today groups and academic scholars that view our past and form opinions. Some of these studies get published. They might persuade people that our generation was inattentive of the world’s problems. Which could have led to a future crisis. In early education, history classes mainly focus on positive American history. The more controversial history topics will be left for courses after high school. It is college that opens our eyes to a broader view of the past. History explains currents situations by examining them chronologically while giving us the knowledge to better understand future issues.

 

An old economics professor told me that the most curious things in this planet are human babies. They experience and see things for the very first time daily. Not sensing danger, they simply want to touch and feel that experience.  As humans we carry this obsession as we mature but more conservable. As adults when we learn about something new we tend to look at its past first. This helps us better understand the current form. Showing that we look at the past to understand the present. We extract the usable data from that and form opinions of the current outcomes (Galgano, 13). When first learning on how the United States flag has come to its current form. We look at the stripes and why it is a very specific number. The red and white stripes represent the first colonies established on the eastern border. Through the years states started being established, and the US continued to add stars on the upper left corner. By wondering on how your countries flag has taken its current structure we learn American history. Thirteen red and white stripes represent the first colonies established. While fifty white stars represent the states that have been established through the years. By doing this type of history a nation can gain a sense of identity through its nationalist historians (Galgano, 7).  As young citizens we want to know how our country has reach its current status, and that is why so much of early education is heavily focused on American history.

 

The dictionaries definition of the word chronological will say something along the lines of events taking place in order while time is the measurement. In our daily life we do many things chronologically. From something as simple as getting dressed to looking at the weather for the week. Time is histories greatest friend. Imagine hearing a story of an individual with three different events that have occurred. If dates are made available we have a better understanding on the progression of events. Knowing which events occurred first and how much time has passed in between will explain the outcome. A great example of history better understood chronologically is WW2 education. We all know the outcome and the main events that took place during WW2. Pearl Harbor, atomic bombing of Japan, Nazi invasions, Nazi’s taking political control, and the Berlin Wall are just some of the most critical facts of WW2. Imagine having this events taught without a specific order. Trying to comprehend these events and explain for them would be nothing more than a guessing game. Since we do have dates we understand that Nazi movement gained power after WW1. German people rallied around the idea of a German nationalist party. Which lead to Germany invading neighboring countries, also forming Axis power. From there we understand why Japan (allies with Germany) attacked Pearl Harbor, which in turned was the deciding factor for the use of an atomic bomb. These events (and many others) led to the defeat of the Nazi party. From these events we understand why the Berlin wall existed, the Allied power split Berlin with a wall. Doing history chronologically is like doing history step-by-step. Dates make it easier to understand the result. Psychologically you can place yourself in the mindset of that time period. Making it easier to understand why people made certain decisions, which seem uncommon in modern times.

 

We’ve all heard that history repeats itself at some point. History is supposed to be a guideline to how we can improve civilizations. History can teach us why certain methods have failed. This is true for economic, cultural, religious, social and many more types of history. In American history there are many things that have been acknowledge but not with pride. In early American history we know that many Native Americans were not only murdered but also separated. At the time our government was trying to migrate them to reservations. The same argument can be made about the civil rights movement. African American citizens were separate because they weren’t white. Trying to place Native Americans in reservations further from the white population. The concept is the same when segregating African Americans (mainly in the south). As a nation the Civil Rights movement was a big step in the right directions, and because of it, we now have laws protecting all citizens from discrimination. There are many lesson history can teach us in modern American history. There are to many times these mistakes do not shine light until they have already been repeated

 

The current world we live in can better be understood through history, looking at it chronologically gives us a better understanding while fueling us with more knowledge to achieve a better tomorrow. There are many methods to doing history, in the end they are all trying to achieve the same goal. History is a study that only keeps growing. It is important we understand it, so we can pass it on with the best available knowledge.